WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES)

Insecticide resistance

Resistance monitoring should be an integral part of vector/public health pest control programmes. Knowledge of vector/pest susceptibility to pesticides, changing trends of resistance and their operational implications are basic requirements to guide pesticide use in vector-borne disease and pest control programmes.

This information provides a basis for selecting pesticide(s), for ascertaining continued susceptibility to and efficacy of pesticide(s) in use, and for vector/pest pesticide resistance management.

Insecticide resistance monitoring

Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticide on treated surfaces, Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.
Ref: WHO/CDS/CPC/MAL/98.12

Insecticide resistance mechanisms

The correct use of biochemical or molecular methods for resistance detection at a mechanistic level can provide a powerful tool for analysing vector/pest populations with the aim of improving resistance detection and management.

Techniques to detect insecticide resistance mechanisms (field and laboratory manual), Geneva, World Health Organization.