WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES)

Insecticide resistance

Resistance monitoring should be an integral part of vector/public health pest control programmes. Knowledge of vector/pest susceptibility to pesticides, changing trends of resistance and their operational implications are basic requirements to guide pesticide use in vector-borne disease and pest control programmes.

This information provides a basis for selecting pesticide(s), for ascertaining continued susceptibility to and efficacy of pesticide(s) in use, and for vector/pest pesticide resistance management.

Insecticide resistance monitoring

Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticide on treated surfaces, Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.
Ref: WHO/CDS/CPC/MAL/98.12

Insecticide resistance mechanisms

The correct use of biochemical or molecular methods for resistance detection at a mechanistic level can provide a powerful tool for analysing vector/pest populations with the aim of improving resistance detection and management.

Techniques to detect insecticide resistance mechanisms (field and laboratory manual), Geneva, World Health Organization.

Guidelines for procuring public health pesticides
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2012.4 | French (web only)

Pesticides and their application for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance, Sixth Edition [pdf 608kb]

Contact us

If you have any queries, please do not hesitate to contact us at whopes@who.int

WHOPES evaluation

Insecticide products under WHOPES evaluation [pdf 20kb]

WHOPES collaborating centres

Collaborating Centres [pdf 48kb]