WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES)

Guidelines for testing

Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of long-lasting insecticidal nets

This document is a revised and improved version of the procedures and guidelines for testing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) published in 2005. The purpose of this document is to harmonize the testing procedures to generate data for registration and labelling of LNs by national authorities. The revision has been made considering the lessons learnt in evaluating LNs in laboratory and field. The document also provides procedures and guidelines to evaluate LNs containing new insecticides or mixtures of insecticides.
Ref: ISBN 978 92 4 150527 7 and Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2013.1

Guidelines for efficacy testing of spatial repellents

The document provides guidance and describes steps for laboratory testing and for semi-field and field evaluations of spatial repellent products designed to provide protection in a specific space (indoor and/or outdoor) against mosquitoes. The term ‘spatial repellency’ refers to a range of insect behaviours induced by airborne chemicals that result in a reduction in human–vector contact and therefore personal protection. The behaviours can include movement away from a chemical stimulus, interference with host detection (attraction inhibition) and feeding response.
Ref: ISBN 978 92 41505024 (web only)

Guidelines for monitoring the durability of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets under operational conditions

The main purpose of these guidelines is to assist national vector-borne disease control programmes, and other relevant agencies, in monitoring the durability of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LNs) under operational conditions. The information derived by monitoring will be useful in planning the replacement of worn-out nets in an LN programme, making decisions to procure the most suitable LNs for the setting and understanding the factors associated with the durability of LN products.
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2011.5 (web only)

Guidelines for testing the efficacy of insecticide products used in aircraft

The purpose of these guidelines is to provide specific, standardized procedures and criteria for testing the efficacy of products designed for disinsection in aircraft; and to assist countries in adopting health control measures under the International Health Regulations. The guidelines are intended for use as a companion to other specific WHO technical guidance documents on avoiding the spread of disease vectors through air travel.
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2012.1 (web only)

A generic risk assessment model for insecticide-treated nets – Revised edition

The Generic risk assessment model for insecticide-treated nets (First revision) provides a generic guidance that can be used for risk assessment of exposure to insecticides of individuals sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, including long-lasting insecticidal nets, during washing of such nets, and during the conventional treatment of nets with insecticide. The model however does not include the special situation of commercial production of treated nets in a factory environment.
A generic risk assessment model for insecticide-treated nets – Revised edition, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2012
Ref: ISBN 978 92 4 150341 9 and WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2012.3

Guidelines for testing mosquito adulticides for indoor residual spraying and treatment of mosquito nets


This document provides specific and standardized procedures and guidelines for testing mosquito adulticides for indoor residual spraying and for treatment of mosquito nets.
Ref:WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/GCDPP/2006.3

Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides


This document provides specific and standardized procedures and guidelines for testing larvicides, including bacterial larvicides and insect growth regulators against mosquitoes.
Ref: WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2005.13

Guidelines for efficacy testing of insecticides for indoor and outdoor ground-applied space spray applications


This document provides specific and standardized procedures and criteria for efficacy testing and evaluation of insecticides for indoor and outdoor, ground-applied space spray applications against vectors and pests of public health importance.
Ref:WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/2009.2

Guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin


This document provides specific and standardized procedures and criteria for efficacy testing and evaluation of mosquito repellents for human skin.
Ref:WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/2009.4

Guidelines for efficacy testing of household insecticide products - Mosquito coils, vaporizer mats, liquid vaporizers, ambient emanators and aerosols


This document provides specific and standardized procedures and criteria for efficacy testing and evaluation of specific household insecticide products intended for indoor use against mosquitoes, namely, mosquito coils, vaporizer mats, liquid vaporizers, ambient emanators and aerosols.
Ref:WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/2009.3

Field testing and evaluation of insecticides for indoor residual spraying against Chagas vectors


The document outlines the general procedures for field trials of residual insecticides against domestic Triatominae, where the aim is to eliminate the domestic bug populations and inhibit reinfestations. The procedure is suitable for village-scale field trials, whose toxicological safety has already been approved.
The procedure also allows for multiple village trials in order to compare the effects of different products, or different formulations of the same product, or different doses of the same formulation.
Field testing and evaluation of insecticides for indoor residual spraying against domestic vectors of Chagas disease, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001
Ref: WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2001.1

Generic risk assessment model for indoor and outdoor space spraying of insecticides — First Revision


This document provides a generic model that can be used for risk assessment of exposure to insecticide products applied as space treatment, both indoors and outdoors, against flying insect vectors and pests of public health importance. It aims to harmonize the risk assessment of such insecticides for public health use.
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2010.6.Rev1 (web only)

Generic risk assessment model for indoor residual spraying of insecticides — First Revision


This document provides a generic model that can be used for risk assessment of exposure to insecticide products applied as indoor residual sprays. It aims to harmonize the risk assessment of such insecticides for public health use in order to generate comparable data for their registering and labelling by national regulatory authorities.
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2010.5.Rev1 (web only)

Generic risk assessment model for insecticides used for larviciding — First Revision


This document provides a generic model that can be used for risk assessment of mosquito larvicides; it aims to harmonize the risk assessment of such insecticides for public health use.
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2010.4.Rev1 (web only)

Guidelines for procuring public health pesticides
Ref: WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2012.4 | French (web only)

Pesticides and their application for the control of vectors and pests of public health importance, Sixth Edition [pdf 608kb]

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WHOPES evaluation

Insecticide products under WHOPES evaluation [pdf 15kb]

WHOPES collaborating centres

Collaborating Centres [pdf 48kb]