Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System (VMNIS)

Key to the data tables for the Database on Anaemia

The most recent survey information for each country is displayed at the top of the data tables, followed by earlier surveys if available. Within each survey, the prevalence of the total population surveyed (Total) is displayed first. Disaggregated data are thereafter displayed by physiological status, sex, age, region or other suitable criteria. An empty field means that no data have been reported. If no cases were found 0 is inserted.


The following abbreviations are used to describe survey administrative levels:

N = National
R = Regional
S = State
D = District
L = Local

Surveys carried out exclusively in urban and rural areas are specified by adding a U or R to the administrative level (for example NU stands for National Urban and DR stands for District Rural).

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The year(s) during which the survey took place. If no date was given for the survey, the date of publication is used and a P is inserted next to the date, for example, 1999 P.

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Location and sample descriptor

This field describes the location of the survey and the sample itself, that is, the specific population surveyed.

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The sex of the population surveyed. If no sex is stipulated, it is assumed that both sexes were studied.

B = Both
F = Female
M = Male

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The age of the population surveyed expressed in years.

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Sample size

The sample size of population investigated. The abbreviation NS (not specified) is used when the sample size is not provided in the survey report.

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Haemoglobin (g/L)

The proportion (%) of the population surveyed with haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/L) below a certain cut-off level. The six cut-off levels: 70, 100, 110, 115, 120 and 130 g/L are the ones most frequently used.1,2

If age and sex specific Hb cut-off levels other than the ones recommended by WHO in either of the following publications were applied, it is mentioned in the "Notes".1,2

The mean haemoglobin concentration expressed in g/L.

The SD (standard deviation) of the mean haemoglobin concentration expressed in g/L.

The method used to determine haemoglobin concentration are coded as follows:

A = Cyanmethaemoglobin (Methaemoglobin)
B = HemoCue
C = Coulter Counter (various models)
D = Other methods (specified in 'General Notes')
NS = Not specified

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References for each country are shown at the bottom of the data table categorized as:

  • Data references: references for which data are presented.
  • Additional references: references providing additional information on anaemia for the country in question.

Letters following the reference numbers refer to different surveys within the same reference.

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General notes

General notes provide additional information applying to the entire survey (for example details on the survey design) and are presented at the bottom of the data tables. It is indicated by an asterisk (*) in the table.

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Line notes

Line notes provide additional information to the data found in a specific line. Details are given at the bottom of the data tables.

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Abbreviations used

The following abbreviations were used in the "Location and sample descriptor", "General notes" or "Line notes" columns:

CI = Confidence interval
LW = Lactating women
NPNLW = Non-pregnant, non-lactating women
NPW = Non-pregnant women
Pre SAC = Preschool-age children
PW = Pregnant women
SAC = School-age children
SD = Standard deviation

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