It should provide rapid and reliable results with optimal sensitivity and specificity, for an uncontroversial diagnosis of both forms of the disease. This should enable onset of immediate treatment, avoiding cumbersome parasitological examinations.
In addition, the tests should be stable at room temperature, requiring no refrigeration and having a reasonable volume for easy storage and transport.
Improved tests for staging are also needed. Stage markers in other body fluids such as serum, urine, or saliva would be ideal to avoid the invasive procedure of a lumbar puncture.