Trade and Health
WHO works to achieve greater policy coherence between trade and health policy so that international trade and trade rules maximize health benefits and minimize health risks, especially for poor and vulnerable populations. The focus is to strengthen capacities in the ministries of health to best enable them to work effectively with their colleagues in the ministries of trade, commerce and finance in efforts to shape and manage the trade policy environment for health.
Diagnostic Tool on Trade and Health
The WHA Resolution 59.26 on International trade and health calls upon WHO to provide support for Member States to understand the implications of international trade and trade agreements for health and to address relevant issues through policies and legislation.
To implement this resolution, WHO is developing a diagnostic tool and companion workbook that will guide national policymakers building public policies and strategies related to trade and health.
Trade and Health Statements and Resolutions
- WHA Resolution on International Trade and Health (WHA59.26)
- EB International trade and health. Report by the Secretariat (EB 116/4)
- WHA Progress reports on technical and health matters (A61/17)
WHO statement on International Trade and Health at the WTO Ministerial (Hong Kong 13-18 Dec. 2005)
- David P. Fidler, Carlos Correa, Obijiofor Aginam. Draft Legal Review of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) from a Health Policy Perspective
- Chantal Blouin, Nick Drager, Richard Smith (ed.) International Trade in Health Services and the GATS: Current Issues and Debates. Published in September 2005 by the World Bank and the World Health Organization.
- WTO agreements and public health. A joint study by the WHO and the WTO Secretariat. Geneva, World Health Organization and World Trade Organization, 2002.
- Trade in health services: global, regional and country perspectives. Washington DC, Pan American Health Organization, 2002.
Drager N. Making trade work for the public health. BMJ, 1999, 319:1214.
- World Bank E-Learning Course on Trade in Services & International Agreements
The following papers are in draft form for restricted distribution only. They reflect work in progress. For further information, please write to WHO_TFD@who.int
- Sauvé P. Managing trade liberalization in services: regulatory frameworks for market opening. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Smith R. Measuring the globalization of health services: a possible index of openness of country health sectors to trade. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Jutamas Arunanondchai and Carsten Fink. Trade in Health Services in the ASEAN Region. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Anne Andermann, Benedikte Dal, Jens Gobrecht, Andreas Reis, Nick Drager and Alex Capron. Ethical dimensions of trade in health services: an analytical framework to promote greater policy coherence. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Rupa Chanda. Trade Policy and Health Human Resources Planning. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Arunanondchai J, Fink C. Trade in Health Services in the ASEAN Region, Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Chanda R. Trade Policy and Health Human Resources Planning, Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Nielson J. 10 steps before making comitments in health services under GATS. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Chanda R, Smith R. Trade in health services and GATS: a framework for policy makers. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Fidler D. et al. Making comitments in health services under the GATS: the legal dimensions. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Blouin C. Making comitments in health services under the GATS: a methodology for impact assessment. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Labonte R, Schrecker T. Making comitments under the GATS: a public health perspective. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Song JK. Trade in health services: Korea. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Woodward D. Food security, nutrition and health: implications of trade liberalization and the WTO agreements. Geneva, World Health Organization.
- Handbook of International Trade in Services, edited by Aaditya Mattoo, Robert M. Stern and Gianni Zanini, Oxford University Press, 2008
Chapter 11 of this Handbook " Trade in Health Services and the GATS" edited by Richard Smith, Chantal Blouin, Nick Drager, and David P. Fidler elucidates from both the trade and health perspectives the nature and implications of international trade in the health sector, and thus it assists the formulation of trade policy and international negotiations in the health sector.