Tuberculosis (TB)

Public-Private Mix (PPM) for TB Care and Control

WHO Papers and Publications


Pantoja A, Floyd K, Unnikrishnan KP, Suryavamshi JR, Padma MR, Lal SS, Uplekar M, Chauhan LS, Kumar P, Sahu S, Wares F, Lönnroth K. Economic evaluation of PPM-DOTS in Bangalore, south India. Part I: Profile and costs of TB patients. 2009 Jun; Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13(6):698–704.

Pantoja A, Lönnroth K, Lal SS, Chauhan LS, Uplekar M, Padma MR, Unnikrishnan KP, Rajesh J, Kumar P, Sahu S, Wares F, Floyd K. Economic evaluation of PPM-DOTS in Bangalore, south India. Part II: Cost and cost-effectiveness of intensified efforts. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2009 Jun; 13(6):705–712.

Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Williams BG, Dye C, Raviglione M. Drivers of tuberculosis epidemics: The role of risk factors and social determinants. Soc Sci Med.2009 Jun;68(12):2240-6. Epub 2009 Apr 23. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Holtz TH, Cobelens F, Chua J, van Leth F, Tupasi T, Williams B. Inclusion of information on risk factors, socio-economic status and health seeking in a tuberculosis prevalence survey. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Feb;13(2):171-6. Abstract

Yesudian HM, Raviglione MR, World Tuberculosis Day 2009: Partnership for TB care. Indian J Med Res 129, March 2009, pp 215-218. Article


Uplekar M, Stopping tuberculosis: time to turn urgent attention to hospitals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Sep; 12 (9):986.Abstract

Kazmi T, De Costa A, Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Diwan VK. PPM – ‘Public-private’ or ‘Private-public’ mix? The case of Ujjain district, India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Nov;12(11):1333-5. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Raviglione M. Global Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Prospects for Control. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 29: 481-491Abstract

PPM for TB care and control:  A tool for national situation assessment

Public-private mix for TB care and control: Report of the inter-Regional planning workshop on public-private mix for TB control, Cairo, Egypt, 25-28 February 2007

Maher D, Dye C, Floyd K, Pantoja A, Lonnroth K, Reid A et al, Planning to improve global health: the next decade of tuberculosis control.Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007;85(5):341-7. Abstract

Uplekar M and Raviglione M, The "vertical-horizontal" debates: time for the pendulum to rest (in peace)? Bull World Health Organ. 2007 May ;85 (5):413-7. Abstract

Lönnroth K, Tin-Aung, Win-Maung, Kluge H, Uplekar M. Social franchising of TB care through private general practitioners in Myanmar - an assessment of access, quality of care, equity, and financial protection. Health Policy and Planning 2007 22(3):156-166 Abstract

Uplekar M, Lönnroth K. MDR and XDR: price of delaying engagement with all care providers for control of TB and TB/HIV. Trop Med Int Health 2007 Apr;12(4):273-274 Abstract


Dewan PK, Lal SS, Lönnroth K, Wares F, Uplekar M, Sahu S, Granich R, Chauhan LS. Public-Private Mix in India: Improving Tuberculosis Control Through Intersectoral Partnerships. BMJ 2006; 332: 574-8 Abstract

Floyd K, Arora VK, Murthy KJR, Lönnroth K, Singla N, Akbar Y, Zignol M, Uplekar M. Cost and cost-effectiveness of public and private sector collaboration in tuberculosis control: evidence from India. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 437-45. Abstract

Salim MAH, Uplekar M, Declercq E, Aung M, Daru P, Lönnroth K. Turning liabilities into resources: the informal village doctors and TB control in Bangladesh. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 479-84. Abstract

Maung M, Kluge H, Aye T, Maung W, Noe P, Zaw M, Jost S, Uplekar M, Lönnroth K. Private General Practitioners Contribute to TB Control in Myanmar - Evaluation of a Public-Private Mix Initiative in Mandalay Division. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2006; 10: 982-987 Abstract

Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Blanc L. Hard gains through soft contracts - productive engagement of private providers in tuberculosis control. Bulletin of WHO 2006; 84: 876-83. Abstract

Public-Private Mix for DOTS:  Towards scaling up - Report of the Third Meeting of the PPM Subgroup for DOTS Expansion

Ambe G, Lönnroth K, Dholakia Y, Copreaux J, Zignol M, Borremans N, Uplekar M. Every provider counts!: Effects of a comprehensive public-private mix approach for TB control in a large metropolitan area in India. International Journal of TB and Lung Diseases, 2005; 9: 562-68. Abstract


Lönnroth K, Uplekar M, Arora VK, Juvekar S, Lan NTN, Mvaniki D, Pathania V. Public-Private Mix for Improved TB Control – what makes it work? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004; 82: 580-86. Abstract


Uplekar M. Involving private health care providers in delivery of TB care: global strategy. Tuberculosis 2003;83:156-164. Abstract

Uplekar M. Public-private mix for DOTS: demanding, but delay will only hamper TB control. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7(12):1113-4. Abstract


Uplekar M, Pathania V, Raviglione M. Private practitioners and public health: weak links in tuberculosis control. Lancet 2001;358(9285):912-6. Abstract


Uplekar M. Private health care. Soc Sci Med 2000;51(6):897-904 Abstract


Uplekar M. (1999). Involving the private medical sector in tuberculosis control. In Tuberculosis: An International Perspective (Porter, J.D.H. and Grange, J.M., eds.), Imperial College Press, London.


Uplekar M, Juvekar S, Morankar S, Rangan S, Nunn P. Tuberculosis patients and practitioners in private clinics in India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998;2:324-329. Abstract