Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS)
The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) is a 5-item questionnaire that provides a score indicating the severity of dependence on opioids. Each of the five items is scored on a 4-point scale (0-3). The total score is obtained through the addition of the 5-item ratings. The higher the score the higher the level of dependence. The SDS takes less than a minute to complete.
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Gossop M, Best D, Marsden J, Strang J (1997). Test-retest reliability of the Severity of Dependence Scale. Addiction, 92(3):353.
Ferri CP, Marsden J, de Araujo M, Laranjeira RR, Gossop M (2000). Validity and reliability of the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) in a Brazilian sample of drug users. Drug and Alcohol Review, 19:451-55.