Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013


Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality 1990-2013: a systematic analysis

Key findings:

Between 1970 and 2013, there was a significant reduction in under-5 mortality rates, albeit with significant regional variations
  • Between 1970 and 2013, there was a 64.3% reduction in global under-5 deaths.
  • However, regional variations continue to occur. Child deaths are as a high as 152.5 per 1000 in Guinea-Bissau versus 2.3 per 1000 in Singapore in 2013.
  • Rates of child death have reduced faster from 2000 to 2013 - compared to the decade from 1990 - in 99 of 188 countries.
  • Some of these reductions in child mortality rates can be attributed to rising income per capita and maternal education.

Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success.

Key findings:

The global maternal death rate fell between 1990 and 2013, though some regions saw increases during the same period
  • The global number of maternal deaths per annum fell from 376,000 in 1990 to 293,000 in 2013.
  • However, there were regional variations in the rate of progress. South, East and Southeast Asia showed consistent decreases in death rates, whereas maternal deaths actually increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s.
  • Maternal mortality rates were highest in the South Sudan and the lowest in Iceland.
  • Causes of death also varied widely by region. They included a combination of medical complications of pregnancy (other direct causes), haemorrhage, and abortion in lower income regions. Deaths from haemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labor and hypertension have decreased dramatically since 1990.