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Foodborne trematodiases

Fact sheet
Updated March 2016

Key facts

  • At least 56 million people globally suffer from one or more foodborne trematodiases.
  • People become infected through the consumption of raw fish, crustaceans or vegetables that harbour the parasite larvae.
  • Foodborne trematodiases are most prevalent in East Asia and South America.
  • Foodborne trematodiases result in severe liver and lung disease.
  • Safe and effective medicines are available to prevent and treat foodborne trematodiases.

Foodborne trematodiases are estimated to affect more than 56 million people throughout the world.

They are caused by trematode worms (“flukes”), of which the most common species affecting humans are Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, Fasciola and Paragonimus.

People become infected through the consumption of raw or poorly cooked food: fish, crustaceans and vegetables that harbour the minute larval stages of the parasites (see Table 1).


Foodborne trematodiases are zoonoses, i.e. they are naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to people and vice versa. Direct transmission is however not possible, as the relevant causative parasites become infective only after having completed complex life-cycles that usually involve stages in intermediate, non-human hosts.

The first intermediate host is in all cases a freshwater snail, while the second host differs: in clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis it is a freshwater fish, in paragonimiasis it is a crustacean, while fascioliasis does not require a second intermediate host. The final host is always a mammal.

People get the infection when they ingest the second intermediate host that is infected with larval forms of the parasite. In the case of fascioliasis, people become infected when the larvae are ingested together with the aquatic vegetables to which they are attached (see Table 1 for details).

Table 1. Epidemiological characteristics of foodborne trematodiases

Disease Infectious agent Acquired through consumption of Natural final hosts of the infection
Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis Fish Dogs and other fish-eating carnivores
Opisthorchiasis Opisthorchis viverrini,
O. felineus
Fish Cats and other fish-eating carnivores
Fascioliasis Fasciola hepatica,
F. gigantica
Aquatic vegetables Sheep, cattle and other herbivores
Paragonimiasis Paragonimus spp. Crustaceans (crabs and crayfish) Cats, dogs and other crustacean-eating carnivores

Epidemiology and burden

In 2005, more than 56 million people worldwide were estimated to be infected with foodborne trematodes, and over 7000 people died from infection.

Cases of foodborne trematodiases have been reported from over 70 countries worldwide. However, East Asia and South America are the most affected areas. In these regions, infections with foodborne trematodes represent a significant public health problem.

Within countries, transmission is often restricted to limited areas and reflects behavioural and ecological patterns, such as people’s food habits, methods of food production and preparation, and the distribution of the intermediate hosts. Information on the epidemiological status of foodborne trematode infections in Africa is largely missing.

The economic impact of foodborne trematodiases is significant, and is linked to losses in livestock and aquaculture industries due to reduced animal productivity, as well as to restrictions on exports and reduced consumer demand.


The public health burden attributable to foodborne trematodiases is predominantly due to morbidity rather than mortality.

Early and light infections often pass unnoticed, as they are asymptomatic or only scarcely symptomatic. Conversely, if the worm load is high, general malaise is common and severe pain can occur, especially in the abdominal region, and this occurs most frequently in the case of fascioliasis.

Chronic infections are invariably associated with severe morbidity. Symptoms are mainly organ-specific and reflect the final location of the adult worms in the body.

In clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, the adult worms lodge in the smaller bile ducts of the liver, causing inflammation and fibrosis of the adjacent tissues and eventually cholangiocarcinoma, a severe and fatal form of bile duct cancer. Both C. sinensis and O. viverrini, but not O. felineus, are classified as carcinogenic agents.

In fascioliasis, the adult worms lodge in the larger bile ducts and the gall bladder, where they cause inflammation, fibrosis, blockage, colic pain and jaundice. Liver fibrosis and anaemia are also frequent.

In paragonimiasis, the final location of the worms is the lung tissue. They cause symptoms that can be confounded with tuberculosis: chronic cough with blood-stained sputum, chest pain, dyspnoea (shortness of breath) and fever. Migration of the worms is possible: cerebral locations are the most severe.

Prevention and control

Control of foodborne trematodiases aims to reduce the risk of infection and at controlling associated morbidity.

Veterinary public health measures and food safety practices are recommended to reduce the risk of infection, while, to control morbidity, WHO recommends improved access to treatment using safe and effective anthelminthic medicines (drugs that expel the worms).

Treatment can be offered through preventive chemotherapy or individual case management. Preventive chemotherapy involves a population-based approach where everyone in a given region or area is given medicines, irrespective of their infection status. It is recommended in areas where large numbers of individuals are infected.

Individual case-management involves the treatment of people with confirmed or suspected infection (see Table 2): this approach is more appropriate where cases are less clustered and where health facilities are available.

Table 2. Recommended treatments and strategies

疾病 推荐的药物和剂量 推荐的策略
支睾吸虫病和后睾吸虫病 个案病例管理
片形吸虫病 个案病例管理
并殖吸虫病 个案病例管理
–2 x 10毫克/公斤,同日,或


WHO response

WHO’s work on foodborne trematodiases is part of an integrated approach to the control of neglected tropical diseases, and includes:

  • development of strategic directions and recommendations;
  • support for mapping in endemic countries;
  • support for pilot interventions and control programmes in endemic countries;
  • support for monitoring and evaluation of implemented activities; and
  • documentation of the burden of foodborne trematodiases and the impact of implemented interventions.

WHO promotes the inclusion of foodborne trematodiases among the targets of preventive chemotherapy interventions, with the aim of ensuring that their worst consequences (cancer of the bile duct and others) are fully prevented.

WHO has also negotiated an agreement with Novartis Pharma AG whereby the company donates triclabendazole for the treatment of human fascioliasis and paragonimiasis. The medicines are shipped free of charge to ministries of health that apply for them. WHO invites all endemic countries to take advantage of this donation programme.

In 2015, about 600 000 individuals were reported to have received treatment for foodborne trematodiases worldwide. The largest programmes for the control of foodborne trematodiases are being implemented in Bolivia, Cambodia, Peru and Viet Nam.