Antimalarial drug resistance
To date, parasite resistance has been documented in three of the five malaria species known to affect humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. Drug resistance results in a delayed or incomplete clearance of parasites from the patient’s blood. The problem of antimalarial drug resistance is compounded by cross resistance, in which resistance to one drug confers resistance to other drugs that belong to the same chemical family or which have similar modes of action. During the past decades, several highly efficacious antimalarials had to be removed from markets after the development of parasite resistance to them.
Artemisinin-based combination therapies
Today, WHO recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by P. falciparum. ACTs have been integral to the remarkable recent successes in global malaria control, and there is broad consensus that protecting the efficacy of these medicine combinations is an urgent priority. However, P. falciparum resistance is now emerging to artemisinin, and has been detected in four countries of the Greater Mekong Subregion: in Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. Containment activities are ongoing in all four countries as part of a multi-stakeholder effort.
Global plan for artemisinin resistance containment
The emergence of P. falciparum resistance to artemisinin is an urgent public health concern, threatening the sustainability of the global effort to reduce the malaria burden in all endemic regions. In January 2011, WHO released the Global plan for artemisinin resistance containment (GPARC), which puts forward four main goals and recommendations:
- to stop the spread of resistant parasites
- to increase monitoring and surveillance to evaluate the artemisinin resistance threat
- to improve access to diagnostics and rational treatment with ACTs; and
- to invest in artemisinin resistance-related research.
The GPARC calls on endemic countries and stakeholders to scale up containment activities in affected countries, and to implement comprehensive plans in other endemic regions to prevent the emergence of resistance.
Prevention and containment
Prevention and containment activities need to build on, expand and accelerate ongoing national efforts to control and eliminate malaria. Artemisinin resistance seems to be occurring primarily near national borders, and in areas with a high number of migrants; therefore strong cross-border and regional programmes are central to continued success in the fight against malaria. WHO is currently implementing an emergency response plan to scale-up containment efforts in the Greater Mekong Subregion, and has opened a regional hub in Phnom Penh, Cambodia to spearhead the multi-partner effort.
Last update: 6 March 2013
Emergency response to artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong subregion
- Global plan for artemisinin resistance containment (GPARC) (2011)