Surveillance and control of leishmaniasis
- the Programme for Elimination of Kala-azar in the South-East Asia Region, agreed by the Ministers of Health of Bangladesh, India and Nepal in 2005;
- a programme in the American Region to strengthen leishmaniasis control and surveillance, which includes mapping of the disease in 14 countries and work to control the progression of visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay; and
- a regional plan on control strategies for leishmaniasis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, based on three pillars: harmonization of surveillance systems, capacity building (for epidemiology, use of geographical information systems, and case management), and sharing of information (www.lemmnet.org).
To achieve this, WHO has adopted a five-pronged approach:
- facilitation of early diagnosis and prompt treatment;
- support for control of sandfly populations through residual insecticide spraying of houses and use of insecticide-impregnated bednets;
- provision of health education and production of training materials;
- detection and containment of epidemics in the early stages; and
- early diagnosis and effective management of leishmania/HIV co-infections.