The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies.
There are three main forms of the disease: cutaneous, visceral and mucocutaneous: cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.
300 000Estimated cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and over 20, 000 deaths annuallyStatus of endemicity of visceral leishmaniasis, worlwide, 2012
1 millionCases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) reported in the last 5 years.Status of endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis, worlwide, 2012
310 millionPeople at risk of infection in six countries reporting over 90% VL cases worldwide.Second WHO report on NTDs
Chapter 3.9, page 67–71