Hepatitis B vaccine is produced by recombinant DNA technology, most commonly in yeast.
The complete vaccination series consists of three doses of vaccine; the first two doses are usually given 1 month apart, with the third dose 1–12 months later. The WHO-recommended schedule for hepatitis B immunization of children consists of a dose within 24 hours of birth followed by a second and third dose of hepatitis Bcontaining vaccines at intervals of at least 4 weeks.
A complete series of immunization provides protection for at least 25 years and, according to current scientific evidence, probably for life. Boosters are not recommended for routine immunization programmes.
Because of the prolonged incubation period of hepatitis B, some protection will be afforded to most travellers following the second dose given before travel. However, the final dose should always be given.
A combination vaccine that provides protection against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B should be considered for travellers who may be exposed to both organisms. This inactivated vaccine is administered as follows: day 0; 1 month; 6 months. A rapid schedule of day 0, 1 month and 2 months with an additional dose at 12 months, and a very rapid schedule of day 0, day 7 and day 21 with a booster dose at 12 months, have been proposed by the vaccine manufacturer and approved by national regulatory authorities in some countries.
Hepatitis B vaccine should be considered for all non-immune individuals travelling to countries or areas with moderate to high risk of infection. It can be administered to infants from birth.