Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

SAGE working group dealing with vaccine hesitancy (established March 2012)

Terms of Reference

  • Prepare for a SAGE review and advice on how to address vaccine hesitancy and its determinants.
  • Define vaccine hesitancy and its scope
  • Undertake a review of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact.
  • Suggest one or several indicator(s) of vaccine hesitancy that could be used to monitor progress in the context of the Decade of Vaccines Global vaccine Action Plan.
  • At global, regional and national levels:
    • Perform a landscape analysis of who/what organizations are working on this issue in various settings/countries
    • Identify existing activities and strategies that have had or could have a positive impact including looking at successful strategies that have worked and are not specifically related to vaccines or even medicines;
    • Identify strategies and activities that did not work well;
    • Identify new activities and strategies that could have a positive impact;
    • Prioritize existing and new activities/strategies based on an assessment of their potential impact;
    • Outline the specific role of WHO in addressing vaccine hesitancy;
    • Identify the specific role of regional and country advisory committees.

Composition

SAGE Members

  • Xiaofeng Liang, Chair of Working Group, Chinese Center for Disease Control, China
  • Juhani Eskola, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Finland

Experts

  • Mohuya Chaudhuri, Independent Journalist and Documentary Filmmaker, India
  • Eve Dubé, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Canada
  • Bruce Gellin, Department of Health and Human Services, U.S.A.
  • Susan Goldstein, Soul City: Institute for Health and Development Communication, South Africa
  • Heidi Larson, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England
  • Noni MacDonald, Dalhousie University, Canada
  • Mahamane Laouali Manzo, Ministry of Health, Niger
  • Arthur Reingold, University of California at Berkeley, U.S.A.
  • Dilian Francisca Toro Torres, Congress of the Republic of Colombia
  • Kinzang Tshering, Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital, Bhutan
  • Yuqing Zhou, Chinese Center for Disease Control, China

WHO Secretariat

  • Philippe Duclos

DECLARATION OF INTERESTS FOR WHO EXPERTS

All members completed a declaration of interests. Only four members reported any relevant interests. It was concluded that all members could take part in full in all of the discussions. The reported relevant interests are summarized below:

Eve Dubé:

• Received in 2008-2010 funding from GlaxoSmithKline towards vaccine beliefs, knowledge, and behavioural attitudes, for which she was the principal investigator. This research grant was unrestricted and Dr. Dubé did not receive a salary from the funding. This interest was assessed as non-personal, specific, and financially significant*.

Juhani Eskola:

• Receives consultancy fees for membership in Novartis Data Safety Monitoring Board for the Global Health typhoid vaccine development project. This interest was assessed as personal, non-specific and financially insignificant*.
• Receives consultancy fees for membership in Novartis Data Safety Monitoring Board for meningococcal vaccines. This interest was assessed as personal, non-specific and financially insignificant*.
• Received in 2009 consultancy fees for participation in Novartis Pneumococcal Vaccine Advisory Group. This interest was assessed as personal, non-specific and financially insignificant*.
• His organization the National Institute for Health and Welfare of Finland has a large joint research programme with GlaxoSmithKline on pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. This interest was assessed as non-personal, non-specific and financially significant*.
• Serves as the Chair of the Steering Committee for the Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative funded by the European Commission as well as Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This interest was assessed as personal, non-specific and financially insignificant*.

Heidi Larson:

• Her research unit receives unrestricted research funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for a vaccine confidence project, for which she is the principal investigator. This interest was assessed as non- personal, specific, and financially significant*.

Xiaofeng Liang:

• Received in 2010 a travel grant from sanofi pasteur and PAREXEL to attend the Global Meningococcal Initiative's (GMI) scientific Secretariat's meeting. This interest was assessed as personal, non-specific and financially insignificant*.
• His institution receives funding from ten Chinese vaccine manufacturers for conducting a clinical trial on H1N1 vaccines for which he is the principal investigator. This interest was assessed as non-personal, non-specific and financially significant*.


* According to WHO's Guidelines for Declaration of Interests (WHO expert), an interest is considered "personal" if it generates financial or non-financial gain to the expert, such as consulting income or a patent. "Specificity" states whether the declared interest is a subject matter of the meeting or work to be undertaken. An interest has "financial significance" if the honoraria, consultancy fee or other received funding, including those received by expert's organization, from any single vaccine manufacturer or other vaccine-related company exceeds 10,000 USD in a calendar year. Likewise, a shareholding in any one vaccine manufacturer or other vaccine-related company in excess of 1,000 USD would also constitute a “significant shareholding”.

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