Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

SAGE Working Group on Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines (November 2013 - February 2015)

Terms of Reference

The Working Group will be asked to review the evidence, identify the information gaps, and formulate proposed recommendations on the use of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines for a SAGE review. This will lead to an update of the current (2006) JE vaccine position paper. The target date for publication of the revised vaccine position paper is 2015.

The Working Group will specifically be asked to review data relating to:

  • the global prevalence and burden of disease caused by JE, including issues relating to JE surveillance
  • the role of inactivated mouse-brain based JE vaccines in the context of other products
  • the safety, effectiveness, and immunogenicity profile of JE vaccines*
  • the schedule and age of administration for JE vaccines
  • the duration of protection following immunization with JE vaccines
  • co-administration of JE vaccines with other vaccines
  • JE vaccination strategies to reduce disease in a country or region, including the possible utility of reactive campaigns during outbreaks
  • use of JE vaccines in special populations (e.g. immunosuppressed, pregnancy)
  • the disease impact and cost-effectiveness of JE immunization programs
  • additional critical issues that need to be considered in updating the current vaccine position paper

*Due to the large number of available JE vaccines with limited global use, the Working Group will focus its in-depth evidence review on products with current or likely international distribution. The Working Group will also place emphasis on inactivated cell-based, live attenuated, and live chimeric vaccines.


SAGE Members

  • Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas (Working Group Chair), National Immunization Program, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
  • Paba Palihawadana, Central Epidemiological Unit, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka


  • Alan Barrett, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA
  • Susan Hills, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
  • Ooi Choo Huck, Sarawak Health Department, Ministry of Health, Malaysia
  • Heidi Meyer, Viral Vaccines Section, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Germany
  • Khin Saw Aye Myint, Eijkman Institute, Indonesia
  • Tom Solomon, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, UK
  • Tomohiko Takasaki, Laboratory of Vector-Borne Viruses, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan
  • Shyam Upreti, Central Regional Health Directorate, Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal
  • Yin Zundong, National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China

WHO Secretariat

  • Joachim Hombach
  • Kirsten Vannice


All Working Group members completed a declaration of interests. Two members reported relevant interests. The reported relevant interests are summarized below:

Susan Hills

  • Her organization (CDC) received a research grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to investigate the impact of SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine in Asia. This interest was assessed as non-personal, specific, and financially significant*.

Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas

  • Received in 2011 a travel grant from a joint venture of the Thai Government Pharmaceutical Organization - Merieux Biological Product to attend the Re-invigorating Immunisation Policy Implementation and Success: From Parent to Partner and from Broad to Engagement. This interest was assessed as personal, non-specific and financially insignificant*.

* According to WHO's Guidelines for Declaration of Interests (WHO expert), an interest is considered "personal" if it generates financial or non-financial gain to the expert, such as consulting income or a patent. "Specificity" states whether the declared interest is a subject matter of the meeting or work to be undertaken. An interest has "financial significance" if the honoraria, consultancy fee or other received funding, including those received by expert's organization, from any single vaccine manufacturer or other vaccine-related company exceeds 5,000 USD in a calendar year. Likewise, a shareholding in any one vaccine manufacturer or other vaccine-related company in excess of 1,000 USD would also constitute a “significant shareholding”.

Last updated: 5 March 2015