Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Guidance and Tools

This page makes available existing guidelines and tools related to immunization financing and targeted at immunization service managers, policy-makers, researchers, international donors and health planners in developing countries.

Making a comprehensive Multi-Year Plan for Immunization - WHO-UNICEF cMYP Guidelines and Tools

These guidelines are intended to assist country programme managers prepare a comprehensive multi-year plan (cMYP) for their national immunization programme according to the approach to planning for immunization developed by WHO and UNICEF. These guidelines provide detailed information about the required elements for country level strategic planning for immunization, and are designed to fit within health sector planning and budgeting processes including critical elements of costing and financing. Accompanying these cMYP guidelines is a costing and financing tool and user guide.

The Immunization Financing Toolkit

The Immunization Financing Toolkit is a series of short briefs on different options for financing national immunization programs and vaccines. It is intended to serve as a resource for program managers and decision makers in ministries of health, planning, and finance. The Toolkit brings together the most up-to-date knowledge on the characteristics of various types of financing mechanisms as well as information on how the mechanisms are being implemented in practice, their potential benefits, and their limitations. Where possible, case studies on specific financing options are included.

WHO guide for standardization of economic evaluations of immunization programmes

This guide was developed to help meet the need of decision-makers for relevant, reliable and consistent economic information; it aims to provide clear and concise, practical, high-quality guidance to those who conduct economic evaluations.

Guidelines for preparing a Financial Sustainability Plan (FSP) for a national immunization programme (GAVI, 2004)

These guidelines have been developed by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and are intended to assist countries to prepare a Financial Sustainability Plan (FSP) for their National Immunization Programme. The guidelines provide detailed information about the required elements of a FSP and how to develop these.

Financial Sustainability Diagnostic Tool for a national immunization programme (WHO, 2004)

The Financial Sustainability Diagnostic Tool (FSDt) is a qualitative tool that allows for a rapid qualitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a National Immunization Programme in terms of the requirements for developing and implementing a viable Financial Sustainability Plan (FSP). Hence, it should be used prior to developing a FSP and in complement to the Guidelines for Preparing a Financial Sustainability Plan for a National Immunization Programme.

Immunization essentials: a practical field guide (USAID, 2004)

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has developed the Immunization Essentials: A Practical Field Guide to assist public health personnel in developing countries in their efforts to achieve and sustain immunization objectives and targets. The guide provides technical and operational information on vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases according to the following topic areas: immunization programme management; service delivery; monitoring, evaluation, and information management; vaccine supply and quality; the cold chain and logistics; injection safety; disease surveillance; behaviour change; costs and financing; and new vaccines and technologies.

Guidelines for estimating costs of introducing new vaccines into the national immunization system (WHO, 2002)

This WHO guideline is targeted at immunization service managers, logisticians, policy-makers, researchers, international donors and health planners in developing countries, and provides a stepped approach for estimating the incremental costs of introducing new vaccines into routine immunization services.

Sustainable Outreach Services (SOS): a strategy for reaching the unreached with immunization and other services (WHO, 2000)

This WHO guideline is targeted at immunization service managers and health planners in developing countries, and outline a stepped approach for developing a strategy for reaching the unreached target populations with immunization and other services. Annex II of these guidelines include a costing framework for SOS.

Financing assessment tool for immunization services: guidelines for performing a country assessment (USAID/PHR, 2000)

The Partnership for Health Reform - Abt Associates Immunization Financing Tool (IF), is intended for in-depth, systematic evaluations of the costs and financing of immunization programmes. The IF tool offers a checklist and tables that guide the user through information gathering, estimating current costs and financing and developing a 5-year plan.

Contact us

World Health Organization (WHO)
Immunization, Vaccines & Biologicals Department (IVB)
Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
20 Avenue Appia
CH -1211, Geneva 27
Switzerland
immunizationfinancing@who.int