Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals

Analyses of immunization financing

Various analyses on immunization financing have been produced based on the information contained in the immunization financing databases. Documentation and analysis on immunization financing are targeted to immunization managers, health planners and policy makers in developing countries that wish to know more about available options to finance national immunization programmes.

Return On Investment From Childhood Immunization In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, 2011–20

An assessment of return on investment (ROI) has found that every dollar invested in vaccines over a decade is estimated to result in a return of 16 times the costs, taking into account treatment costs and productivity losses. Estimates were derived by looking not only at vaccine costs, but also supply chain and service delivery costs. When considering broader economic and social benefits, the ROI for immunization was 44 times the vaccination costs.

Vaccine co-financing

The Gavi co-financing policy was introduced in 2007, with the intention of improving the financial sustainability of national immunization programmes. Under the co-financing policy, national governments are required to make contributions to cover part of the cost of Gavi-funded vaccines. Countries effectively co-procure a portion of their new vaccines and safe injection device requirements. The Gavi-eligible countries are grouped according to their average GNI per capita over the previous 3 years, with the co-financing obligations varying across the groups. As a country experiences economic growth it is expected that they will become more able to find the required fiscal space to finance vaccine costs using domestic funds. The co-financing policy helps to put countries on the trajectory towards financial sustainability and prepares them for the phasing out of Gavi supported vaccines.

Immunization financing options resource kit - "The briefcase"

Immunization financing options resource kit -

Principally intended for policy makers in Ministries of Health, Finance, and Planning and Investment, the Immunization Financing Options resource kit contains numerous briefing sheets that bring together up-to-date knowledge about the major advantages and drawbacks of available financing options for immunization.

GAVI Financing Task Force (FTF) - Financial sustainability for immunisation in the poorest countries lessons from GAVI 2000–2006

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Last updated: 16 April 2015

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World Health Organization (WHO)
Immunization, Vaccines & Biologicals Department (IVB)
Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
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