Key facts on HIV epidemic and progress in regions and countries in 2010
Based on Progress report 2011: Global HIV/AIDS response
Sub-Saharan Africa had the biggest increase in the number of people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2010, from 3 911 000 in December 2009 to about 5 064 000, representing a 30% increase in one year. Around 49% of people in need of ART in the region were receiving it at the end of 2010.
Three countries of the region with generalized epidemics (Botswana, Namibia, Rwanda) have achieved universal access to ART, providing it to at least 80% of patients in need. Two countries with generalized epidemics (Swaziland, Zambia) have estimated coverage rates between 70% and 79%.
Thanks to ART scale-up, an estimated 460 000 (or 30%) fewer people in the region died from AIDS-related causes in 2010 than in 2004.
Of the 1.36 million pregnant women living with HIV in the region, approximately 50% were receiving effective drug regimens to prevent mother-to child transmission in 2010.
There has also been significant progress in reducing HIV incidence among children. An estimated 390 000 children were infected with HIV in 2010, 30% fewer than the peak of 560 000 in 2002--2003.
In 2010, there were 456 000 children receiving paediatric HIV treatment, which accounts for 21% of children in need in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is a serious gap in coverage rates between Eastern and Southern Africa (26%) and Western and Central Africa (9%).
Some 50% of the 45 countries reporting ARV drug stock-outs in 2010 were in the African region.
The region bears the biggest burden of HIV in the world. Around 22.9 million or nearly 68% of all people living with HIV worldwide live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Women comprise 59% of people living with HIV in this region.
There were an estimated 1.9 million new infections in the region in 2010, representing more than two thirds (70%) of all new infections globally.
South Africa’s HIV epidemic remains the biggest in the world, with an estimated 5.6 million HIV-positive people as of 2009. This exceeds the number of people living with HIV in the entire Asian region.
The vast majority of new infections result from unprotected heterosexual intercourse, including paid sex and sex in long-term and concurrent relationships, or they occur as a result of mother-to-child transmission.
There is increasing evidence to indicate that sex between men and injecting drug use are growing problems in the region.
Evidence also suggests that large proportions of men who have sex with men also have sex with women. For instance, in Senegal, four fifths (82%) of surveyed men who have sex with men said that they also had sex with women. Fifty percent of those participating in a Lagos study said they also had sex with their girlfriends, and one third of those surveyed in Malawi were married or cohabiting with women.