WHO global strategy for the surveillance and monitoring of HIV drug resistance 2012


Publication details

Editors: WHO
Number of pages: 24
Publication date: November 2012
Languages: English
ISBN: 978 92 4 150476 8



The document summarizes a comprehensive package of HIV drug resistance surveys that should be implemented in all countries scaling-up and maintaining populations on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The sections of the strategy include:

  • Monitoring HIV drug resistance early warning indicators
  • Surveillance of HIV drug resistance in populations prior to treatment initiation and among those receiving ART
  • Cross-sectional surveys of HIV drug resistance in adults prior to ART initiation at representative ART clinics
  • Cross-sectional surveys of acquired HIV drug resistance in adults and children on ART for more than 12 months at nationally representative ART clinics
  • Surveys of HIV drug resistance in children less than 18 months of age
  • Surveys of transmitted drug resistance in recently infected populations
  • Implementation and funding HIV drug resistance surveillance activities within national ART programmes.

Related links