Health financing for universal coverage

Tools and guidance

Sound health financing policy planning, implementation, management, and analysis requires a good knowledge of health financing issues, contextual constraints and opportunities. It also requires adequate tools to support a systematic approach to the issues.

Health financing policy is not a mechanistic process, and in this context, the term “tool” is intended to mean guidance for approaching the issues in a systematic manner.

In order to improve their health financing systems, countries need to constantly adapt to changing situations and adjust their health financing systems in response.

Guidance on conducting a situation analysis

Developing a national health financing strategy should begin with a thorough analysis of the country’s existing health financing arrangements. Such an analysis aims to provide detailed insights into where the existing system is performing well or poorly, a diagnosis of the reasons why, and the challenges that the country faces in moving towards UHC. This document offers users systematic guidance on the issues that need to be considered when undertaking such a situation analysis.

We are making this draft “version 1.0” of the document available on line for a limited time – through 15 January 2015. The aim is to have users test it in practice and provide feedback that can help us to finalize the document for general distribution. We would be grateful if users would send feedback to

Guidance for health financing policy assessment and development

A health financing system review is necessary to assess a country's current health financing situation and the way it functions and performs. A review assesses a system’s resource mobilization, its pooling and purchasing functions as well as its efficiency and equity.

Guides to systematic thinking about health financing policy can help countries carry out health financing system assessment in a coherent and comprehensive manner.

OASIS is an analytical approach that can be used to assess a country's current health financing situation and the way it functions and performs.

Tools for policy makers

  • CHOICE (CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective)
    WHO CHOICE provides a standardized method for cost effectiveness analysis that can be applied to all interventions in different settings.
  • SimIns
    A computerized tool for health financing policy decision-making. It allows evaluation of the feasibility of alternative mixes of financing sources.

Monitoring, tracking and evaluating