Humanitarian Health Action

Donor centre archive 2006

CAP 2006 and Other Appeals

Compendium of WHO financial requirements for responding to emergencies as identified in the Consolidated Appeals Process 2006, the Workplan 2006 for the Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Humanitarian Action Plan 2006. Used by agencies working at field level, coordinated by the UN, and supported by donors, this emergency response programme gives people in need the best available protection and assistance in crises.

Sudan UN Workplan 2006

WHO is seeking USD 27,277,488 to cover the costs of its activities in Sudan.

Summary of 2005 WHO main emergency requirements and funding status

1 February 2006

Countries/territories

  • Burundi
    A new political environment lead by the first democratically elected government since 1993 has been established in 2005. In 2006, the international community will continue supporting Burundi, providing the humanitarian assistance needed during this period of early stabilization and recovery.
  • Burundi
    The population has to face access constraints, with 80 to 90% of the patients running into debt or selling their belongings to pay for medical costs. Access to second level referral services still remains a serious problem. The capacity to carry out emergency surgical procedures is limited and the costs of a surgical intervention are prohibitive. Many hospitals do not have the personnel and/or equipment to respond to emergencies. In May 2006, the Government’s decision to provide free health care to children under five overstretched the capacity of the health care delivery system; WHO and its partners are working on a strategy to address this issue.
  • Central African Republic
    Despite the increasing health crisis in Central African Republic (CAR), appeals for assistance have not been met and it remains an underfunded and “forgotten” emergency in one of the poorest country in the world.
  • Central African Republic
    Until 2005, the humanitarian crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR) was one of the world’s most neglected emergencies. International attention began to rise in 2006 when the security situation severely deteriorated in the North. Maternal and childhood health is still characterized by poor indicators: under-five mortality is 220 per 1000, while registered maternal mortality is one of the highest in Africa: 1355 deaths per 100 000 live births. The HIV/AIDS prevalence among pregnant women is estimated at about 15%. The immunization coverage remain below 50%. The displacement of 150 000 people has aggravated the situation.
  • Chad
    Since the beginning of 2003, the conflict in the Darfur region has driven some 215 000 Sudanese refugees to Eastern Chad. Living in many camps, they struggle along with the local impoverished population, estimated at 1 185 000 persons, for use of limited water and sanitation facilities. Access to health care is aggravated by the cost recovery system.
  • Chad
    With regard to access to health care, refugee areas have benefited from health assistance provided by medical NGOs, coordinated by UNHCR. However, most of the IDPs and the local population suffer from a lack of continued health care provision as a result of insecurity or absence of health partners.
  • Chad, Cameroun and Central African Republic
    Over the past months, the situation in the Chad, Central African Republic and Sudan triangle has steadily deteriorated, and now threatens to spill over into neighbouring Cameroun. Fighting is intensifying in eastern Chad, that since 2003 hosts more than 232 000 refugees from Darfur, and where 90 000 people are also internally displaced. Chad is also hosting 48 000 refugees from the Central African Republic accommodated in several camps in the south. WHO is strengthening its presence in Abeche (Chad) and in Bangui and Bassangoa (Central African Republic) and carrying out health assessments in the refugee camps in Cameroun in coordination with partners. The Italian Government is one of the main supporters of this operation.
  • Côte d'Ivoire
    The humanitarian situation continues to deteriorate, with adverse effects on displaced and other vulnerable groups, particularly in the volatile western and northern areas. In the first half of 2006, the national average of children vaccinated was 70%; nevertheless, a quarter of health districts still have a coverage rate below 30%, also due to a lack of routine immunization. The collection of health information and health data is improving in some districts, but in others, especially those in the North and the West, the rate of completeness and promptitude is still very low, which is a weakening factor for the disease surveillance system.
  • Côte d’Ivoire
    Following the dumping of petroleum waste in Abidjan on 19 August, eight people have died and at least 62 000 sought medical assistance. Fear and the severity of the symptoms have caused anxiety among the population and the increasing number of people seeking medical assistance has overwhelmed the capacities of the emergency services in hospitals and health centres. Shortages of drugs and medical supplies were reported countrywide. HAC is supporting the Department for the Protection of Human Environment, the WHO Country Office in Abidjan, the national authorities, and partners in responding to this crisis.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Crude mortality rates in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), especially in the east, continue to be above the threshold used to define an emergency (one death per 10,000 people per day).
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
    The main public health problems are malaria, acute respiratory infections (including tuberculosis), diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera) and pregnancy-related complications. Disease control thus remains a major priority. Child mortality is at least 126 deaths per 1000 live births, with malaria being the cause of 45% of child deaths. The mortality rate in the East continues to be above acceptable levels, with a maternal mortality rate of 1800 deaths per 100 000 live births. The HIV/AIDS incidence is estimated at the relatively high level of 4.2%. Beside the displacement of persons, there are also factors like the high level of poverty and the environmental conditions which increase the risk of illness. The immunization coverage level is also very low with, for example, only 40% of the children being vaccinated against measles.
  • Great Lakes
    Despite an overall improvement of the security situation, the region’s crises continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Great Lakes Region (GLR). Access to healthcare, especially for those displaced by conflict, has been limited largely due to a collapse in preexisting health infrastructure.
  • Guinea
    Located at the heart of the Mano River Union (MRU), a region plagued by instability, Guinea has been a relatively stable, if impoverished, country. Guinea currently hosts more than 70 000 refugees, of whom close to 90% are living in camps. Other vulnerable groups include victims of gender-based violence, abandoned children and handicap¬ped persons. The already limited health system is now severely overstretched by the presence of the refugee populations. Geo¬graphical access is difficult and many health centres do not have ambulances for trans¬porting patients. Many health facilities also suffer from a lack of drugs, reagents and medical supplies as well as safe water.
  • Horn of Africa
    The Horn of Africa is facing severe food insecurity due to the prolonged drought throughout the region. Reduced food intake and lack of varied diet, leading to malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies (e.g. vitamin A) will result in increased morbidity and mortality, particularly from communicable diseases. Disease, in turn, will aggravate nutritional losses.
  • Horn of Africa
    WHO is looking at an affected population of about 2 million as far as immediate and medium term threats are concerned. As far as polio eradication is concerned, the potential economic and social impact of a failure of this effort is much more difficult to estimate.
  • Indonesia
    The 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami caused catastrophic destruction and human casualties in the Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh) and North Sumatra provinces of Indonesia.
  • Iraq
    The aim of the UN Health Cluster in Iraq is to support the Ministry of Health’s (MoH) National Health Strategy in meeting basic health needs. The fundamental objectives of this strategy is to shift from a hospital-oriented healthcare delivery system, to one based on primary healthcare delivery, including emergency preparedness and response addressing the needs of the Iraqis, especially the vulnerable population while promoting a healthy living environment. The Health Cluster coordinates its activities with the Ministry of Health and all stakeholders working in the health sector to ensure they complement the MoH Strategy in health reform process.
  • Lebanon
    The current crisis in Lebanon could have a disastrous effect on the health sector with particular consequences for the nation's most vulnerable populations. WHO estimates that a total of US$ 13.9 million is urgently needed to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality through provision of safe drinking water, medicines for chronic diseases and childhood illnesses, technical and logistic assistance and related support.
  • Nepal
    An armed Maoist insurgency which began in 1996 has spread all over the country, destroying many health posts in the rural areas. Between 100,000 to 200,000 persons are internally displaced with difficult access to health care. The main health concerns are diarrhorreal disease, dysentry, and cholera compounded by vulnerability to natural disasters.
  • Niger
    Niger confronts a chronic nutritional crisis, leading to deaths from measles, malaria, cholera, respiratory diseases and diarrhoea. One third of its population is severely affected by this crisis, and 40% of children under age of 5 years risk dying from malnutrition without prompt medical care.
  • Republic of the Congo
    The general health situation among the Congolese population is very precarious and characterized by a high level of mortality which is estimated at 14.3 per 1000. Under-five mortality is estimated at 108 per 1000 and maternal mortality at 787 per 100 000 live births.
  • Russian Federation - North Caucasus - Chechnya
    The North Caucasus region —especially Chechnya, Ingushetia and North Ossetia —is in the grip of an ongoing humanitarian crisis marked by conflict and poverty.
  • Sahel
    The food and nutritional levels in the Sahel remain worrying, and the latest nutritional surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger indicate acute malnutrition levels that exceed the internationally agreed upon emergency threshold.
  • Somalia
    Years of widespread internal conflict and no central government has left Somalia in extreme poverty.
  • Somalia
    Access to, and quality of health care in Somalia remains inadequate to meet the needs of the population. In addition, health services are unequally distributed, with vast areas completely deprived of basic health care. There are only 39 qualified doctors per one million inhabitants, mainly concentrated in urban areas and only 141 qualified midwives, There is an urgent need to gradually increase access to basic health care by expanding and scaling up primary health care, targeting the most under-served areas.
  • Sri Lanka
    The re-start of the conflict in the north-east of Sri Lanka between the Government Army and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has already caused the displacement of more than 200,000 people in 2006, with the possibility of an increase to an estimated 400,000 in case of further dissemination of the conflict. In addition, one million people in the hosting communities are likely to be affected if the conflict continues.
  • Sudan
    For some time at least, the livelihoods of all Sudanese will remain insecure, while the many stakeholders, for long at odds with each other, learn to collaborate towards attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Sudan
    The overall objective is to reduce avoidable morbidity and mortality among vulnerable populations in areas affected by conflict (especially Darfur) or natural disasters, to strengthen the health care delivery system and build the capacity of MoH on the federal level, in southern Sudan and in the transitional areas.
  • The occupied Palestinian territory
    Access to health care services remains one of the main constraints, both for health care workers as well as patients. Curfews and the increasing number of checkpoints and roadblocks aggravate the situation. In the West Bank, as a consequence of the strike of MoH staff, only critical medical cases are received at governmental hospitals and health clinics and hospital wards.
  • Uganda
    The number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Northern Uganda has more than tripled in 24 months; it now stands at 1.6 million.
  • Uganda
    According to the Service Availability Mapping (SAM) survey, the coverage of key health, nutrition and HIV/AIDS interventions remain low. Particularly, access to HIV/AIDS services at lower level units is insufficient. Many health facilities, particularly in Gulu, do not provide vaccination services and ante-natal care. This lack of services is partly due to a major shortage of human resources in the conflict affected districts (the doctor population ratio is 1:53 291 in Pader district, 1:18 000 at the national level). In addition, most of the trained staff is concentrated at district headquarters.
  • West African region
    Access to and availability of functioning and affordable health care services are not granted to large numbers of the most vulnerable people, especially rural communities and displaced persons. As such, the recurrent health emergencies in most of the West African countries need considerable and sustainable efforts in terms of coordination, including information management, of technical support and of resource mobilization.
  • West Bank and Gaza Strip
    With the humanitarian situation in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) looking extremely bleak and predicted to worsen in the coming months, the United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been compelled to revise their appeal for humanitarian assistance to Palestinians upwards by 80% from $215 million to $385 million.
  • Zimbabwe
    The provision of health services has been adversely affected by economic instability in recent years. The quality of services, as reflected by the basic indicators of the country’s socio-economic situation and the quality of life, indicate no signs of improvement. Funding gaps in the health sector are a major concern in a country with increased numbers of epidemics, drug shortages, and manpower crisis in strategic departments affected by HIV/AIDS. Therefore, support from the humanitarian community is still required.

Events

Emergency Response Framework (ERF)

ERF is to clarify WHO’s roles and responsibilities and to provide a common approach for its work in emergencies.