Global situation and trends: Tuberculosis (TB) is contagious and airborne. It ranks alongside HIV as a leading cause of death worldwide. 9.6 million people are estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014: 5.4 million men, 3.2 million women and 1.0 million children. An estimated 1.2 million people living with HIV developed TB in 2014. There have been major advances in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB: mortality has fallen 47% since 1990. Effective diagnosis and treatment of TB saved an estimated 43 million lives between 2000 and 2014. Despite these advances and despite the fact that nearly all cases can be cured, TB remains one of the world’s biggest threats. In 2014, TB killed some 1.5 million people (1.1 million HIV-negative and 0.4 million HIV-positive). The toll comprised 890 000 men, 480 000 women and 140 000 children. One in 3 HIV deaths is due to TB.