Exposure to ambient air pollution
Situation at country level
Exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of acute lower respiratory infection in children under 5 years of age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and lung cancer. The annual median concentration of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) for both urban population and rural and urban population was estimated with a statistical model using data from various sources, including ground measurements and satellite data. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 range from less than 10 to over 100 µg/m3.
Situation at city level
Exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of many chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular conditions in children and/or adults. 3000 human settlements, mostly cities, have reported annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) and of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), many of which exceed WHO's Air Quality Guideline values.
Reported pollution levels were measured during the years 2008–2015, with the great majority during the years 2012 and 2014.