Exposure to ambient air pollution
Situation at country level
Exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of inadequate nutrition and acute lower respiratory infection in children under 5 years of age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and lung cancer. The annual mean concentration of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in the countries' urban population was estimated on the basis of measurements in cities within the countries. The reported country averages rely on measurements for the years 2008–2012, with the great majority for the years 2011 and 2012. They range from 9 to over 100 µg/m3.
Situation at city level
Exposure to particulate matter increases the risk of many chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular conditions in children and adults. 1600 cities have reported annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10), many of which exceed WHO's Air Quality Guideline values. Reported pollution levels were measurements during the years 2008–2012, with the great majority during the years 2011 and 2012.