Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
Situation and trends
In 1986, 3.5 million new cases were estimated to occur annually. Based on active village-based searches, 892 055 cases were reported to have occurred in 1989. By 2010, as a result of the intensive efforts to eradicate dracunculiasis, the annual incidence was brought down to 1797 cases, a reduction of more than 99% since 1989. In 2010, only five countries (Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali and Sudan) had indigenous cases; Sudan accounted for 94% of all cases reported in 2010. Ghana has not reported any new case since June 2010. The number of endemic villages declined from the peak of 23 735 in 1991 to 261 in 2010. Dracunculiasis is on the verge of eradication. WHO has now certified 187 countries and territories as free of dracunculiasis or as having interrupted transmission or being an area where transmission never occurred.