e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

eLENA interventions and global targets

Evidence linking micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV to global targets*

Global nutrition targets 2025


40% reduction in the number of children under-5 who are stunted

Direct evidence for a link between micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV and reduced risk of stunting is not currently available at the systematic review level. Results of a 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis of women with HIV found that supplementation with multivitamins (vitamins B, C and E) during pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of low birth weight. Results of a 2013 pooling analysis of longitudinal birth cohorts found that low birth weight was associated with increased odds of both stunting and wasting in childhood, providing indirect evidence for a link between micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV and reduced odds of stunting.



30% reduction in low birth weight

Direct evidence for the effect of micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV on risk of low birth weight comes from the results of a 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis which found that supplementation with multivitamins (vitamins B, C and E) in pregnant women with HIV during pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of low birth weight.



Reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%

Direct evidence for a link between micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV and reduced risk of wasting is not currently available at the systematic review level. Results of a 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis of pregnant women with HIV found that supplementation with multivitamins (vitamins B, C and E) during pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of low birth weight. Results of a 2013 pooling analysis of longitudinal birth cohorts found that low birth weight was associated with increased odds of both stunting and wasting in childhood, providing indirect evidence for a link between multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV and reduced wasting.



* With few exceptions, links noted between interventions and global nutrition or NCD targets are based on published evidence resulting from systematic reviews of the literature. Individual studies were not assessed unless they were included in such a published review.

Coloured icons indicate that there is evidence of a direct link between the intervention of interest and target(s); i.e. systematic reviews are available assessing the effect of the intervention on an outcome directly relevant to the targets (e.g. prevalence of stunting, rate of breastfeeding, etc.).

Grey icons indicate that there is evidence of an indirect link between the intervention of interest and target(s). Where indirect links have been noted, systematic reviews linking the intervention directly to one or more targets are not currently available; i.e. the studies included in the review(s) do not assess the effect of the intervention on the outcomes that are directly relevant to the targets. For example, systematic reviews directly linking breastfeeding to stunting are not currently available. However, systematic reviews linking breastfeeding to a reduction in diarrhoea are available, as are reviews linking diarrhoea to increases in stunting. Therefore, interventions that increase breastfeeding rates may indirectly reduce stunting. Additionally, indirect links may be noted when the only available outcome data is for an indicator used to assess outcomes relevant to the targets. For example, body mass index (BMI) is an indicator for overweight and obesity and an intervention that reduces BMI may contribute to decreasing rates of overweight and/or obesity. Therefore, an indirect link would be noted between interventions for which systematic review(s) report BMI as an outcome, and the global overweight and obesity targets.

Printable summary

Download a summary of all nutrition interventions featured on eLENA with corresponding global nutrition and NCD targets in PDF format