e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

Infant feeding for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the primary way that infants become infected with HIV. Transmission can occur during pregnancy, birth, or through breastfeeding. In the past, the dilemma has been how to balance the risk of infants acquiring HIV through breastfeeding, with the risk of death from malnutrition, diarrhoea and pneumonia if infants are not exclusively breastfed.

In 2009–2010, new evidence showed that giving antiretroviral medicines to the mother or the infant can dramatically reduce the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. It is now possible for infants to breastfeed with little risk of acquiring HIV.

WHO recommends that national health authorities make the decision to endorse either breastfeeding with antiretrovirals, or to avoid all breastfeeding. This decision should be made after a review of national HIV rates along with the main causes of childhood death other than HIV.

WHO documents

GRC-approved guidelines
Other guidance documents


Systematic reviews used to develop guidelines
Related Cochrane reviews
Clinical trials

Last update:

25 March 2014 13:23 CET

Category 1 intervention

Guidelines have been recently approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee

Biological, behavioural and contextual rationale