Use of antibiotics in the outpatient management of children 6-59 months of age with severe acute malnutrition
In children who are 6–59 months of age, severe acute malnutrition is defined by a very low weight-for-height/weight-for-length, or clinical signs of bilateral pitting oedema, or a very low mid-upper arm circumference. Severe acute malnutrition affects an estimated 19 million children under 5 years of age worldwide and is estimated to account for approximately 400,000 child deaths each year.
Children with severe acute malnutrition may be more susceptible to infection and studies have documented the high prevalence of pneumonia, bacteraemia and urinary tract infections in severely malnourished children. However, as severe acute malnutrition suppresses the immune response, it may be difficult to detect infection.
Previous recommendations were that all children with severe acute malnutrition should be admitted to hospital and treated with a course of antibiotics. However, the availability of ready-to-use-therapeutic foods now allows for the outpatient treatment of large numbers of children who have severe acute malnutrition but who do not have medical complications. Many children being treated as outpatients still have or may be susceptible to infection.
Children who are 6-59 months of age with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, not requiring to be admitted and who are managed as outpatients, should be given a course of oral antibiotic, such as amoxicillin.
Children who are 6-59 months of age who are undernourished but who do not have severe acute malnutrition should not routinely receive antibiotics unless they show signs of clinical infection.
This is a summary of one of several WHO recommendations on the management of SAM in infants and children. The full set of recommendations can be found in 'Full set of recommendations' and in the guidelines and guidance documents under ‘WHO documents’ below.
Updates on the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children
Pocket book of hospital care for children: second edition. Guidelines for the management of common illnesses with limited resources
Other guidance documents
Systematic reviews used to develop the guidelines
The effectiveness of interventions to treat severe acute malnutrition in young children: a systematic review
Antibiotics in severely malnourished children: systematic review of efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics
Related systematic reviews
Do children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition need antibiotics? A systematic review and meta-analysis