In Chad: the outbreak that was first detected in 2010 continued into its third year in 2012; 10 new indigenous cases were reported from 9 villages of 7 districts in 4/24 regions. As a result, Chad was reclassified as a country endemic for the disease. Only 2 of the villages (Mossio-Massa and Akoum- Mabaye) that notified a case in 2012 had also reported a case in 2011; this is similar to the situation in 2011 when only 1 case in 1 locality (Camp-Sara) in 2011 was possibly linked with a case reported in Matassi village in 2010.
None of the 30 cases reported in 2010, 2011 and 2012 had a history of travel out of Chad.
Of the 30 cases reported in 2010, 2011 and 2012 specimens from 6 cases, 10 cases and 4 cases respectively were confirmed positive for Dracunculus medinensis by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Research, Training and Eradication of Dracunculiasis at the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by parasitological examination and/or molecular testing.
As of the end of 2012, 192 countries, territories and areas have been certified free of dracunculiasis transmission. Fourteen countries remain to be certified, of which 4 countries (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia and South Africa) have no recent history of dracunculiasis. The 10 other countries are either endemic-Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan or in pre certification phase -Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Niger, and Sudan.
The last stage of the programme is the most difficult; it requires more concentrated and focused efforts on surveillance, not only in endemic areas but also in areas free of transmission but at risk of importation from endemic areas.