Cost effectiveness and strategic planning (WHO-CHOICE)

Global price tags

The WHO-CHOICE approach has been applied to support the production of resource needs estimates for multiple countries – so called global price tags – for a number of disease and programme-specific analyses. The use of consistent methodologies and price assumptions across studies, linking to the WHO-CHOICE database with uniform assumptions on costs, allows for greater comparability between estimates for different health areas.

Under 'documents' there is a list of publications which make use of WHO-CHOICE methods and cost data. Publications include estimates for low- and middle income countries to scale up maternal health services, child health interventions, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria and immunization services among others, with the aim to estimate resources needed to make progress towards specific Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other health goals.

In 2009, WHO coordinated an effort to estimate the costs of strengthening health systems in 49 low-income countries in order to scale up service provision to move more rapidly towards the health MDGs. The estimated cost suggests that average health expenditures should reach at least $54 per capita. Investments could then reach a total of 21 hospital beds per 10,000 population and 1.9 nurses and midwives per 1,000 population, with significant mortality reductions of 23 million deaths from 2009–2015.

Link to the full costing report for the Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems:


  • Health Systems Financing
    Cost-effectiveness analysis and its implementation via CHOICE is part of health systems financing.