Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Universal combination antiretroviral regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural Zambia: a two-round cross-sectional study

Benjamin H Chi, Patrick Musonda, Mwila K Lembalemba, Namwinga T Chintu, Matthew G Gartland, Saziso N Mulenga, Maximillian Bweupe, Eleanor Turnbull, Elizabeth M Stringer & Jeffrey SA Stringer

Volume 92, Number 8, August 2014, 582-592

Table 3. Factors associated with HIV infection or death before 24 months in children born to HIV-infected mothers, Kafue district of Zambia, 2009–2011

Factor Hazard ratio for HIV infection or death (95% CI)a
Unadjusted Adjusted
Reported PMTCT therapy
Combination antiretroviral regimen 0.24 (0.11–0.52) 0.33 (0.15–0.73)
Other therapy 1.30 (0.85–2.00) 1.39 (0.87–2.23)
No antiretroviral prophylaxis 1.0 1.0
Maternal age at time of survey, years
15 to < 25 1.0 1.0
25 to < 35 1.52 (0.72–3.22) 1.67 (0.94–2.96)
≥ 35 0.53 (0.16–1.75) 1.10 (0.49–2.44)
Parity
0–1 1.0 1.0
2–3 1.08 (0.53–2.21) 0.62 (0.35–1.10)
≥ 4 0.38 (0.17–0.82) 0.54 (0.29–0.99)
Educational level
No schooling or primary 1.32 (0.72–2.39) 1.13 (0.74–1.73)
Secondary or higher 1.0 1.0
Marital status
Married or cohabitating 1.0 1.0
Single or widowed 0.79 (0.33–1.89) 1.07 (0.65–1.75)
One or more institutional antenatal care visits
Yes 1.0 1.0
No 0.14 (0.06–0.31) 0.59 (0.23–1.52)
Institutional delivery
Yes 1.0 1.0
No 1.65 (0.89–3.08) 1.28 (0.83–1.96)
Infant breastfed at birth
Yes 1.0 1.0
No 0.30 (0.12–0.76) 0.66 (0.24–1.76)
Survey
First (before PMTCT programme) 1.0 1.0
Second (after PMTCT programme) 0.38 (0.20–0.72) 0.52 (0.34–0.80)

CI: confidence interval; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; PMTCT: prevention of mother-to-child transmission.

a In the multivariate analysis, adjustment was made for the health-care facility in which the programme was implemented.