Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Universal combination antiretroviral regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural Zambia: a two-round cross-sectional study

Benjamin H Chi, Patrick Musonda, Mwila K Lembalemba, Namwinga T Chintu, Matthew G Gartland, Saziso N Mulenga, Maximillian Bweupe, Eleanor Turnbull, Elizabeth M Stringer & Jeffrey SA Stringer

Volume 92, Number 8, August 2014, 582-592

Table 2. Characteristics of households, mothers and children in a pilot programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the Kafue district of Zambia, 2009–2011

Characteristica No. (%) of households, mothers or childrena
Pd
First surveyb (n = 1830) Second surveyc (n = 2444)
Household characteristics
Water supply < 0.0001
  Piped water to house 256 (14.0) 401 (16.4)
  Piped water outside but available within grounds 437 (23.9) 516 (21.1)
  Public tap 379 (20.7) 704 (28.8)
  Other 758 (41.4) 823 (33.7)
Toilet facilities 0.026
  Flush toilet or pit latrine 1600 (87.4) 2161 (88.4)
  None 230 (12.6) 283 (11.6)
Main floor material < 0.0001
  Finished floor (i.e. cement, tiles, wood or planks) 1094 (59.8) 1672 (68.4)
  Natural floor (i.e. earth, mud, dung or sand) 735 (40.2) 758 (30.9)
  Data missing 1 (0.1) 17 (0.7)
Electricity 581 (31.7) 1032 (42.2) < 0.0001
Refrigerator 353 (19.3) 641 (26.2) < 0.0001
Television 705 (38.5) 1079 (44.1) < 0.0001
Mobile phone 1103 (60.3) 1990 (81.4) < 0.0001
Maternal characteristics
Age at survey in years, median (IQR) 26 (21–31) 25 (21–30) 0.003
Parity, median (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 0.0002
Marital status 0.075
  Married or cohabitating 1531 (83.7) 2093 (85.6)
  Other 299 (16.3) 351 (14.4)
Educational level 0.034
  Primary schooling or none at all 924 (50.5) 1314 (53.8)
  Secondary or higher 906 (49.5) 1130 (46.2)
Currently employed 697 (38.1) 1068 (43.7) < 0.0001
HIV status (laboratory data; n = 1778 and n = 2386)e 0.071
  Positive 335 (18.8) 390 (16.3)
  Negative 1443 (81.2) 1996 (83.7)
Enrolled for antenatal care during last pregnancy 1729 (94.5) 2392 (97.9) < 0.0001
Gestational age when antenatal care started, in weeks (n = 1720 and n = 2393), median (IQR) 20 (16–24) 20 (16–24) 0.488
Delivery in a health-care facility 1061 (58.0) 1658 (67.8) < 0.0001
Child’s characteristics
Age at survey in months, median (IQR) 10.9 (4.6–16.9) 10.8 (5.2–17.3) 0.081
Birth weight in grams (n = 1179 and n = 1791),e median (IQR) 3000 (2800–3500) 3050 (2700–3400) 0.144
Birth weight ≤ 2500 g 193 (10.5) 300 (12.3) < 0.0001
Feeding method in first 6 months of life (children aged > 6 months only, n = 1256 and n = 1747)e
  Exclusively breastfed 1088 (86.6) 1660 (95.0) < 0.0001
  Mixed feeding 148 (11.8) 34 (1.9)
  Formula feeding only 14 (1.1) 21 (1.2)
  Data missing 6 (0.5) 32 (1.8)

IQR: interquartile range.

a No. (%) unless otherwise stated in row headers.

b The first survey was conducted between November 2008 and May 2009, before implementation of the PMTCT programme.

c The second survey was conducted between March and December 2011, at least two years after the PMTCT programme had been introduced.

d Categorical variables were compared using Pearson’s χ2 test and continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

e The number of women or children for whom the information was available in the first and second surveys, respectively.