Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Universal combination antiretroviral regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural Zambia: a two-round cross-sectional study

Benjamin H Chi, Patrick Musonda, Mwila K Lembalemba, Namwinga T Chintu, Matthew G Gartland, Saziso N Mulenga, Maximillian Bweupe, Eleanor Turnbull, Elizabeth M Stringer & Jeffrey SA Stringer

Volume 92, Number 8, August 2014, 582-592

Table 1. Characteristics of a pilot programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Kafue district of Zambia, 2009–2011, and the World Health Organization’s strategies

Characteristic Zambian pilot programme WHO strategy
Option B4 Option B+5
CD4+ T-cell count measured before starting ART Yes Yes Optional
Maternal combination antiretroviral regimen during pregnancy and labour Yes Yes Yes
Gestational age at regimen initiation 28 weeks or later 14 weeks or later 14 weeks or later
Timing of infant prophylaxis with zidovudine or nevirapine First week of life First 6 weeks of life First 6 weeks of life
Maternal combination antiretroviral regimen during breastfeeding Yes Yes Yes
Continuation of combination antiretroviral regimens after cessation of breastfeeding Only for those eligible for HIV treatment according to adult guidelines Only for those eligible for HIV treatment according to adult guidelines Lifelong HIV treatment for all women

ART: antiretroviral therapy; WHO: World Health Organization.