Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes and their risk factors among Bangladeshi adults: a nationwide survey

Shamima Akter, M Mizanur Rahman, Sarah Krull Abe & Papia Sultana

Volume 92, Number 3, March 2014, 204-213A

Table 4. Risk factors associated with diabetes in individuals aged 35 years or more, Bangladesh, 2011

Characteristic Logistic regression modela
Firstb
Secondc
Fulld
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Individual
Age group (years)
  35–39 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
  40–44 1.16 (0.86–1.56) 0.33 NA NA 1.17 (0.87–1.57) 0.30
  45–49 1.46 (1.09–1.95) 0.01 NA NA 1.46 (1.09–1.96) 0.01
  50–54 1.35 (0.98–1.85) 0.06 NA NA 1.33 (0.97–1.82) 0.08
  55–59 1.94 (1.40–2.69) < 0.01 NA NA 1.94 (1.40–2.68) < 0.01
  60–69 1.52 (1.10–2.10) 0.01 NA NA 1.51 (1.09–2.08) 0.01
  ≥ 70 1.81 (1.27–2.6) < 0.01 NA NA 1.82 (1.27–2.60) < 0.01
Sex
  Male 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
  Female 0.95 (0.73–1.25) 0.72 NA NA 0.96 (0.73–1.25) 0.75
Educational level
  No education 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
  Primary education 1.39 (1.12–1.73) < 0.01 NA NA 1.36 (1.09–1.69) 0.01
  Secondary education 1.55 (1.21–2.00) < 0.01 NA NA 1.52 (1.18–1.96) < 0.01
  Higher education 2.18 (1.58–3.00) < 0.01 NA NA 2.12 (1.53–2.92) < 0.01
Currently working
  Yes 0.71 (0.54–0.92) 0.01 NA NA 0.72 (0.55–0.94) 0.01
  No 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
Marital status
  Currently married 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
  Divorced, widowed or other 1.09 (0.84–1.40) 0.52 NA NA 1.06 (0.82–1.36) 0.67
Hypertension
  Yes 1.54 (1.29–1.84) < 0.01 NA NA 1.57 (1.31–1.88) < 0.01
  No 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
Body weight
  Normal 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
  Overweight or obese 1.93 (1.51–2.47) < 0.01 NA NA 1.93 (1.52–2.47) < 0.01
Household
Socioeconomic status
  Poorest 1.00 NA NA NA 1.00 NA
  Poorer 0.82 (0.59–1.14) 0.23 NA NA 0.79 (0.57–1.10) 0.17
  Middle 0.82 (0.59–1.13) 0.22 NA NA 0.80 (0.58–1.10) 0.17
  Richer 1.14 (0.84–1.55) 0.39 NA NA 1.12 (0.82–1.52) 0.48
  Richest 2.22 (1.64–3.02) < 0.01 NA NA 2.15 (1.55–2.98) < 0.01
Community
Place of residence
  Urban NA NA 1.00 NA 1.00 NA
  Rural NA NA 0.51 (0.42–0.63) < 0.01 0.94 (0.77–1.15) 0.57
Region of residence
  Khulna division NA NA 1.00 NA 1.00 NA
  Barisal division NA NA 2.01 (1.49–2.71) < 0.01 2.06 (1.47–2.88) < 0.01
  Chittagong division NA NA 2.06 (1.54–2.76) < 0.01 1.90 (1.39–2.60) < 0.01
  Dhaka division NA NA 1.48 (1.10–1.98) 0.01 1.42 (1.04–1.94) 0.03
  Rajshahi division NA NA 1.65 (1.22–2.23) < 0.01 1.68 (1.22–2.33) < 0.01
  Rangpur division NA NA 1.36 (0.96–1.92) 0.08 1.44 (1.03–2.03) 0.03
  Sylhet division NA NA 1.70 (1.26–2.29) < 0.01 1.71 (1.23–2.39) < 0.01

CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable; OR, odds ratio.

a The analysis included data from 600 communities, 4162 households and 6746 household members.

b The first logistic regression model considered only individual and household characteristics.

c The second model considered only community characteristics.

d The full model considered individual, household and community characteristics.