Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with health-care payments in Bangladesh

Md Mizanur Rahman, Stuart Gilmour, Eiko Saito, Papia Sultana & Kenji Shibuya

Volume 91, Number 6, June 2013, 449-458

Table 5. Multilevel Poisson regression model of risk of distress financing, Bangladesh, 2011

Characteristic RR (95% CI)a
Illness
Have rheumatoid arthritis?
    Yes 1.19 (0.95–1.49)
    No 1.00
Have heart disease?
    Yes 1.22 (1.05–1.42)
    No 1.00
Have asthma?
    Yes 1.73 (1.35–2.22)
    No 1.00
Have liver disease?
    Yes 1.63 (1.06–2.51)
    No 1.00
Have typhoid?
    Yes 1.92 (1.08–3.43)
    No 1.00
Have tumour?
    Yes 2.02 (0.92–4.42)
    No 1.00
Care-seeking behaviour
Inpatient facility 8.64 (4.67–15.98)
Outpatient facility
    Public only 1.80 (1.42–2.28)
    Private only 2.01 (1.40–2.88)
    Both public and private 2.14 (1.48–3.09)
Traditional healer 0.89 (0.63–1.25)
Self-medication/no treatment sought 1.00
Age (years)
    0–4 1.00
    5–9 0.96 (0.58–1.59)
    10–14 0.83 (0.51–1.36)
    15–29 1.15 (0.66–1.98)
    30–44 1.19 (0.78–1.82)
    45–59 1.45 (0.95–2.23)
    ≥ 60 1.29 (0.84–1.98)
Household expenditure
    Quintile 1 (lowest) 7.97 (3.59–17.66)
    Quintile 2 3.94 (1.85–8.39)
    Quintile 3 1.97 (0.81–4.77)
    Quintile 4 1.94 (0.89–4.26)
    Quintile 5 (highest) 1.00

CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk.

a The analysis was restricted to the 3300 household members who, in the 30 days before the data were collected, reportedly suffered illness that led to household expenditure.