Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with health-care payments in Bangladesh

Md Mizanur Rahman, Stuart Gilmour, Eiko Saito, Papia Sultana & Kenji Shibuya

Volume 91, Number 6, June 2013, 449-458

Table 4. Households implementing distress financing, by household or household member characteristics, Bangladesh, 2011

Characteristic Percentage (95% CI) of households implementing distress financinga
Illness  
Hypertension 12.2 (8.0–18.1)
Gastritis/peptic ulcer 11.9 (7.6–18.1)
Rheumatoid arthritisb 16.8 (11.6–23.8)
Diabetesb 12.4 (6.7–21.9)
Heart diseaseb 24.4 (17.4–33.1)
Migraine/headache 14.6 (9.3–22.1)
Asthmab 21.9 (14.3–32.1)
Diarrhoea/gastroenteritis 12.5 (7.4–20.6)
Allergyb 5.8 (1.9–16.4)
Injury 10.1 (4.4–21.7)
Skin disease 17.7 (8.8–32.4)
Cataract 17.1 (8.4–31.6)
Dental 11.9 (5.2–25.0)
Haemorrhoids 12.2 (4.4–29.6)
Liver disease (including hepatitis B and C)b 26.1 (14.3–42.9)
Urinary tract infection 18.1 (8.1–35.7)
Nephrolithiasis 21.0 (8.7–42.4)
Mental illness 15.1 (4.2–42.0)
Tumourb 27.5 (13.7–47.5)
Typhoidb 25.7 (10.7–50.0)
Care-seeking behaviourb  
Inpatient 48.4 (35.9–61.0)
Outpatient
    At public facility only 17.3 (12.2–24.1)
    At private facility only 15.1 (10.1–21.9)
    At both public and private facilities 30.5 (17.1–48.2)
Traditional healer 8.1 (4.7–13.7)
Self-medication/no treatment sought 10.0 (7.0–14.1)
Educational status of household memberb  
No education 17.3 (12.9–22.9)
Primary 15.5 (11.5–20.6)
Secondary 12.2 (8.1–18.1)
Higher 8.4 (5.5–12.8)
Household expenditureb  
Quintile 1 (lowest) 24.0 (18.4–30.8)
Quintile 2 15.1 (10.7–20.8)
Quintile 3 9.8 (5.5–16.9)
Quintile 4 10.9 (6.9–16.6)
Quintile 5 (highest) 6.9 (3.7–12.6)

CI, confidence interval.

a The analysis was restricted to the 3300 household members who, in the 30 days before the data were collected, reportedly suffered illness that led to household expenditure.

b These characteristics, which each gave a P-value of < 0.25 in the univariate analysis, were included in the multilevel Poisson regression model.