Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys

Nayu Ikeda, Yuki Irie & Kenji Shibuya

Volume 91, Number 5, May 2013, 341-349

Table 2. Variables associated with child stunting, based on data from the Cambodian Demographic and Health Surveys of 2000, 2005 and 2010

Variable OR (95% CI)
Sex
Male 1.1057 (1.0122–1.2078)
Female 1
Age (months) 1.0307 (1.0278–1.0336)
Residence
Urban 1
Rural 0.9212 (0.7916–1.0719)
Type of birth
Single 1
Multiple 1.9075 (1.2865–2.8283)
Breastfeeding initiation  
< 1 hour of birth 0.9587 (0.8612–1.0672)
≥ 1 hour after birth 1
Preceding birth interval
None (first birth) 1.0677 (0.9495–1.2006)
< 18 months 1.4763 (1.2031–1.8117)
18–23 months 1.4272 (1.2109–1.6821)
24–29 months 1.3103 (1.1341–1.5139)
30–35 months 1.1931 (1.0196–1.3962)
≥ 36 months 1
Household wealth index score 0.9040a (0.8768–0.9321)
No. of household members 1.0286b (1.0067–1.0509)
Drinking water source in dry season  
Not improved 1
Improved 1.0341 (0.9318–1.1476)
Sanitation facility
Not improved 1
Improved 0.8145 (0.6902–0.9612)
Diarrhoea in past 2 weeks
No 1
Yes 1.2209 (1.0857–1.3731)
Paternal education
None 1.5865 (1.1764–2.1396)
Incomplete primary 1.6730 (1.2678–2.2076)
Complete primary 1.5575 (1.1430–2.1222)
Incomplete secondary 1.4380 (1.1028–1.8750)
Complete secondary or higher 1
Maternal education
None 2.0173 (1.2795–3.1803)
Incomplete primary 1.8252 (1.1691–2.8497)
Complete primary 1.9221 (1.2028–3.0715)
Incomplete secondary 1.8579 (1.1966–2.8845)
Complete secondary or higher 1
Maternal use of tobaccoc
No 1
Yes 1.2607 (1.0936–1.4532)
Maternal height 1.0471 (1.0353–1.0591)
Maternal height squared 0.9996 (0.9995–0.9997)
Maternal body mass index
< 18.5 kg/m2 1.2283 (1.0924–1.3811)
18.5–24.9 kg/m2 1
≥ 25.0 kg/m2 0.8468 (0.7105–1.0092)
Maternal birth cohort
1975–1978d 1.1683 (1.0212–1.3365)
Other years 1
Survey year
2000 1.0863 (0.8996–1.3117)
2005 0.9437 (0.7910–1.1259)
2010 1

CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.

a A 1-point increase in household wealth index scores results in a 10% decrease in the odds of stunting.

b A 1-person increase in the number of household members results in a 3% increase in the odds of stunting.

c At the time of the survey.

d Period of the Khmer Rouge regime.