Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys

Nayu Ikeda, Yuki Irie & Kenji Shibuya

Volume 91, Number 5, May 2013, 341-349

Table 1. Characteristics of children included in the analysis, by year, based on data obtained from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Surveys of 2000, 2005 and 2010

Characteristic Value (95% CI)
2000 (n = 3395) 2005 (n = 3418) 2010 (n = 3553)
Male sex (%) 51.2 (49.1–53.3) 48.8 (46.7–51.0) 51.3 (49.2–53.4)
Age (months) 29.9 (29.3–30.5) 29.6 (28.9–30.2) 29.5 (28.9–30.1)
Rural residence (%) 85.6 (84.2–86.9) 86.4 (84.2–88.4) 84.5 (82.7–86.0)
Multiple birth (%) 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.9 (0.6–1.6)
Breastfed within 1 hour of birth (%) 10.6 (9.3–12.0) 36.6 (34.3–39.0) 64.4 (61.8–67.0)
Preceding birth interval (%)      
None (first birth) 18.6 (17.1–20.3) 26.9 (25.1–28.7) 34.0 (32.0–36.0)
< 18 months 5.5 (4.7–6.4) 4.9 (4.1–5.7) 3.8 (3.1–4.7)
18–23 months 10.1 (9.1–11.3) 8.2 (7.1–9.4) 6.4 (5.4–7.5)
24–29 months 15.3 (14.1–16.7) 11.0 (9.9–12.2) 9.4 (8.2–10.7)
30–35 months 12.4 (11.2–13.7) 10.6 (9.4–12.0) 7.6 (6.4–8.9)
≥ 36 months 38.1 (36.0–40.1) 38.5 (36.4–40.6) 38.9 (36.7–41.0)
Average no. of household members 6.3 (6.2–6.4) 5.8 (5.7–6.0) 5.7 (5.6–5.8)
Improved drinking water source in dry season (%) 41.1 (37.5–44.7) 71.0 (67.8–74.1) 75.4 (72.0–78.5)
Improved sanitation facility (%) 4.5 (3.6–5.6) 16.5 (14.3–19.0) 28.6 (26.0–31.3)
Diarrhoea in past 2 weeks (%) 20.4 (18.6–22.4) 19.3 (17.4–21.3) 15.7 (13.9–17.7)
Paternal education (%)
None 17.6 (15.5–19.8) 14.6 (12.6–16.8) 11.3 (9.7–13.1)
Incomplete primary 42.9 (40.4–45.4) 42.9 (40.4–45.3) 37.5 (35.1–39.9)
Complete primary 7.9 (6.7–9.3) 7.3 (6.0–8.8) 8.4 (7.0–10.0)
Incomplete secondary 30.8 (28.3–33.3) 29.7 (27.3–32.2) 34.0 (31.6–36.6)
Complete secondary or higher 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 5.6 (4.5–6.9) 8.8 (7.5–10.2)
Maternal education (%)
None 32.4 (29.9–34.9) 23.8 (21.5–26.3) 18.9 (16.7–21.2)
Incomplete primary 49.5 (46.9–52.2) 51.8 (49.2–54.4) 47.5 (44.8–50.2)
Complete primary 4.2 (3.3–5.3) 6.8 (5.7–8.1) 9.1 (7.6–10.9)
Incomplete secondary 13.1 (11.4–15.0) 15.7 (13.6–18.0) 20.8 (18.7–23.2)
Complete secondary or higher 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.9 (1.2–3.0) 3.7 (2.8–4.8)
Maternal use of tobaccoa (%) 14.3 (12.4–16.5) 12.4 (10.6–14.4) 6.6 (5.1–8.4)
Maternal height (cm) 153.1 (152.8–153.3) 152.6 (152.3–152.8) 152.7 (152.4–153.0)
Maternal BMI (%)
< 18.5 kg/m2 19.9 (18.0–21.9) 19.4 (17.4–21.5) 17.8 (16.1–19.6)
18.5–24.9 kg/m2 74.9 (72.9–76.9) 72.5 (70.0–74.8) 72.7 (70.4–74.8)
≥ 25.0 kg/m2 5.2 (4.3–6.4) 8.1 (6.8–9.7) 9.5 (8.2–11.1)
Mother born in 1975–1978 (%) 12.3 (10.8–14.0) 15.8 (14.1–17.6) 9.3 (8.0–10.8)

BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval.

a At the time of the survey.