Mortality among people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Bradley M Mathers, Louisa Degenhardt, Chiara Bucello, James Lemon, Lucas Wiessing & Mathew Hickman
Volume 91, Number 2, February 2013, 102-123
Table 2. Comparison of risk of dying from all causes and from drug overdose among people injecting opioids and those injecting stimulants
|Study||Users of opioids
||Users of stimulants
||All-cause CMR ratio
||Overdose CMR ratio
||Opioid use definition||Stimulant use definition|
|PY||All-cause deaths (No.)||All-cause CMRa||Deaths from OD (No.)||OD CMRa||PY||All-cause deaths (No.)||All-cause CMRa||Deaths from OD (No.)||OD CMRa||Ratiob||95% CI||Ratiob||95% CI|
|Fugelstad et al. (1997)
||3022.7||133||4.40||72||1.67||3938||39||0.99||15||0.38||4.44||3.12–6.33||4.39||3.46–5.53||Hospital records – at least once had a diagnosis of heroin dependence –opioid user||Hospital records – if had no heroin dependence diagnosis and at least once had a diagnosis of ATS dependence|
|Lejckova et al. (2007)
||13 323.9||114||0.86||36||0.27||9748.4||48||0.49||8||0.08||1.74||1.24–2.44||3.29||2.35–4.61||ICD-10 code F11 opioid dependence||ICD-10 code F15 – stimulant dependence|
|O’Driscoll et al. (2001)
||2984.9||40||1.34||19||0.64||544.6||14||2.57||7||1.29||0.52||0.29–0.95||0.50||0.20–1.24||Primary drug – heroin||Primary drug – cocaine or speed|
|van Haastrecht et al. (1996)
||268||9||3.36||–||–||326||15||4.60||–||–||0.73||0.33–1.64||–||–||Main drug injected – heroin||Main drug injected – cocaine or ATS|
|Vlahov et al. (2005)
||2047||85||4.15||16||0.78||3727||175||4.70||20||0.54||0.88||0.69–1.14||1.44||1.12–1.86||Heroin||Any cocaine or crack|
CI, confidence interval; CMR, crude mortality rate; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases; OD, overdose; PY, person–years; S, stimulant.
a Deaths per 100 PY of follow-up.
b Represents the CMR ratio for people injecting opioids (numerator) versus people injecting stimulants (denominator).
c Meta-analysis of all-cause CMR ratio: Test of estimate = 1; P = 0.553; heterogeneity (χ2) = 67.99; P < 0.0005; I2 = 94.1%.
d Meta-analysis of overdose CMR ratio: Test of estimate = 1: P = 0.18; heterogeneity (χ2) = 20.10; P < 0.0005; I2 = 85.1%.
Note: Values reported in papers appear in plain text; italicized values were derived from other available data.