Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974–2007

Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Maria Helena D’Aquino Benicio, Wolney Lisboa Conde, Silvia Konno, Ana Lucia Lovadino, Aluisio JD Barros & Cesar Gomes Victora

Volume 88, Number 4, April 2010, 305-311

Table 1. Child stunting prevalence, per survey year and socioeconomic quintile, Brazil, 1974–2007

Surveya year Socioeconomic indicator Stunting prevalence, % (no. of children), per quintile SII (95% CI) Concentration index (95% CI)
Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Erreygersb Traditional
1974–75 Per capita income 59.0 (5613) 50.8 (6477) 38.5 (6963) 25.7 (7551) 12.1 (7805) −60.0 (−60.0 to −59.9) −0.38 (−0.399 to −0.363) −0.26 (−0.265 to −0.248)
1989 Per capita income 39.1 (1468) 30.6 (1572) 16.6 (1563) 7.2 (1297) 5.1 (1234) −46.1 (−46.3 to −45.9) −0.27 (−0.301 to −0.233) −0.34 (−0.371 to −0.303)
1996 Asset-based 30.7 (910) 17.9 (1022) 9.6 (833) 5.7 (752) 4.9 (632) −32.1 (−32.4 to −31.7) −0.20 (−0.235 to −0.165) −0.36 (−0.407 to −0.318)
2006–07 Asset-based 11.0 (1205) 9.3 (854) 6.8 (829) 3.6 (833) 4.0 (693) −10.3 (−10.3 to −10.2) −0.07 (−0.089 to −0.041) −0.22 (−0.313 to −0.129)
Per capita income 11.2 (1039) 9.3 (852) 5.2 (784) 5.9 (699) 3.3 (534) −9.7 (−9.8 to −9.6) −0.05 (−0.083 to −0.017) −0.16 (−0.268 to −0.044)

CI, confidence interval; SII, slope index of inequality.
a 1974–75: Estudo Nacional de Despesa Familiar [National Study on Family Expenditures]; 1989: Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição [National Health and Nutrition Survey]; 1996 and 2006–07: Demographic and Health Survey.
b Calculated as suggested by Erreygers, whose method has been criticized for leading to a measure reflecting absolute change more than relative change.
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