Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Fatal injuries among urban children in South Africa: risk distribution and potential for reduction

Stephanie Burrows, Ashley van Niekerk & Lucie Laflamme

Volume 88, Number 4, April 2010, 267-272

Table 2. Number of events,a age-adjusted death ratesb and population attributable risksc for leading causes of fatal injury in children by sex, population group and city, South Africa, 2001–2003

Pedestrian
Passenger
Drowning
Burn
Firearm
No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate
Sex
Female 300 6.1 86 1.7 108 2.1 153 3.0 63 1.3
Male 453 9.2 99 2.0 265 5.3 206 4.1 109 2.2
Population groupd
Indian/Asian 9 1.5 9 1.5 5 0.9 7 1.2 6 1.0
White 8 0.7 26 2.4 12 4.3 3 0.3 12 1.1
Coloured 138 7.9 38 2.1 35 2.0 47 2.7 34 1.9
African 600 9.4 111 1.7 281 4.3 305 4.5 121 1.9
City
Tshwane 37 2.5 12 0.8 43 2.9 27 1.8 14 1.0
Cape Town 204 8.8 42 1.8 52 2.2 85 3.6 55 2.4
Johannesburg 153 7.0 51 2.3 100 4.2 95 4.0 44 2.0
eThekwini 240 9.4 43 1.7 99 3.8 89 3.4 32 1.3
Nelson Mandela 78 10.0 26 3.1 29 3.7 36 4.6 12 1.5
Buffalo City 48 8.4 14 2.4 52 9.2 31 5.4 16 2.8
PAR
Sex NA 20.5 NA 7.2 NA 42.2 NA 15.0 NA 26.9
Population group NA 90.4 NA 16.9 NA 39.5 NA 47.5 NA 30.9
City NA 67.0 NA 56.3 NA 40.6 NA 49.6 NA 45.1

NA, not applicable; PAR, population attributable risk.
a Total numbers may vary across variables because of missing data for sex and population group.
b Per 100 000.
c PARs (shown as percentages) are calculated using the group with the lowest rate as the reference, i.e. females for all causes; Indian/Asian children for passenger, drowning and firearm-related deaths; white children for pedestrian and burn deaths; Tshwane for pedestrian, passenger, burn and firearm deaths; Cape Town for drowning deaths. The formula used to calculate PARs was (Ip − I u)/Ip , where Iu is the incidence in the unexposed and Ip the incidence in the total population (exposed and unexposed).
d Classification by population group as used by the South African government. Data source: National Injury Mortality Surveillance System, 2001–2003.

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