Estimating the obstetric costs of female genital mutilation in six African countries
Taghreed Adam, Heli Bathija, David Bishai, Yung-Ting Bonnenfant, Manal Darwish, Dale Huntington, Elise Johansen & for the FGM Cost Study Group of the World Health Organization
Volume 88, Number 4, April 2010, 281-288
Table 1. Prevalence of obstetric outcomes, by type of female genital mutilation, in a modelled cohort of women of reproductive age (15–45 years) in six African countriesa
|Parameter||Mean/median||95% CI||Assumed distributionb|
|Caesarean section prevalence (FGM–0)c||0.07||Beta|
|Caesarean section RR|
|FGM–1d||1.03||0.88–1.21||Truncated normal of log(RR) (−2.5, 2.5)|
|Haemorrhage prevalence (FGM–0)||0.06||Beta|
|FGM–1||1.03||0.87–1.21||Truncated normal of log(RR) (−2.5, 2.5)|
|Inpatient stay prevalence (FGM–0)||0.06||Beta|
|Inpatient stay RR|
|FGM–1||1.15||0.97–1.35||Truncated normal of log(RR) (−2.5, 2.5)|
|Inpatient perinatal death prevalence (FGM–0)||0.04||Beta|
|Inpatient perinatal death RR|
|FGM–1||1.15||0.94–1.41||Truncated normal of log(RR) (−2.5, 2.5)|
|Resuscitated infant prevalence (FGM–0)||0.08||Beta|
|Resuscitated infant RR|
|FGM–1||1.11||0.95–1.28||Truncated normal of log(RR) (−2.5, 2.5)|
|Episiotomy prevalence (FGM–0)||0.29||Beta|
|FGM–1||1.61||1.46–1.78||Truncated normal of log(RR) (−2.5, 2.5) except FGM3 (−2.9, 2.9)|
CI, confidence interval; FGM, female genital mutilation; RR, relative risk.
a Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and the Sudan.
b Beta distributions were set such that the most likely value occurred slightly below the mean, and the maximum value was set at 0.10 to 0.24 for outcomes other than episiotomy.
c No FGM.
d Excision of the prepuce with or without total or partial excision of the entire clitoris.
e Excision of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora.
f Complete or partial excision of the external genitalia and stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening (infibulation). Based on data from study by the World Health Organization.